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이 책이 얼마나 마음에 드셨습니까?
파일의 품질이 어떻습니까?
책의 품질을 평가하시려면 책을 다운로드하시기 바랍니다
다운로드된 파일들의 품질이 어떻습니까?
년:
2018
언어:
english
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PDF, 1.90 MB
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책에 대한 리뷰를 작성하거나 귀하의 독서 경험을 공유할 수 있습니다. 다른 독자들이 귀하가 읽은 책에 대한 의견에 귀를 기울일 것입니다. 개인적으로 책이 마음에 들었거나 그렇지 않았거나 정직하고 상세한 호평은 다른 독자들이 자신에게 적합한 책을 찾는데 도움이 됩니다.
1

La madre di Eva

Tahun:
2017
Bahasa:
italian
Fail:
EPUB, 483 KB
0 / 0
2

Scrisorile lui Mihai Eminescu

Tahun:
2000
Bahasa:
romanian, moldavian
Fail:
PDF, 829 KB
0 / 0
Wikibooks Wikijunior Languages

Wikijunior

Languages
From Wikibooks,
the open-content textbooks collection

First Edition
Published:
May 28, 2006

The current version of this book can be found at

http://en.wikibooks.org/wiki/Wikijunior_Languages

Copyright (c) 2006 Wikibooks.
Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the
terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1.2 or any later version
published by the Free Software Foundation; with no Invariant Sections, no FrontCover Texts, and no Back-Cover Texts. A copy of the license is included in the
section entitled "GNU Free Documentation License".

1

Wikibooks Wikijunior Languages

C ontents
.

03 - Introduction

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•

06 - Languages
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•

06 - Arabic
08 - Chinese
11 - Dutch
13 - English
16 - Esperanto
18 - Estonian
22 - Finnish
25 - French
29 - German
34 - Greek
37 - Hebrew
39 - Hindi

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•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
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42 - Italian
44 - Japanese
47 - Kannada
49 - Korean
51 - Latin
54 - Marathi
57 - Portuguese
60 - Russian
63 - Sanskrit
65 - Spanish
69 - Swedish
72 - Urdu

•

74 - Glossary

•

76 - Authors

•

78 - GNU Free Documentation License

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Wikibooks Wikijunior Languages

Introduction
Just What Is a Language?
A language is an organised, ordered way of speaking and listening. Reading and writing are a way of
representing language in a permanent format, but many languages have no written form. Language is
one form of communication. It can be spoken, visual or signed. We can say that language is a code of
symbols used to communicate.

What is not a language?
There are some things that work like language. For example, when you see a red traffic light, it is just
the same as if somebody said to you "You should not cross the street now". The traffic signs work in
the same way: drivers know when they have to turn left or right or to go slower. So they are a kind of
communication system. Can we speak about "Traffic signs language"? Not really. Traffic signs work
very well fo; r some signals, but you can not say "I've eaten pizza today" by using traffic signs. The
number of thoughts that you can express with them is limited. This is not the case for real languages.
Using English, or Russian, or Japanese, you can express a wide variety of different thoughts. You can
also express brand new thoughts can create brand new sentences and still be understood by your
listeners.

Who Came Up With the Languages?
People didn't just decide one day to start speaking. Languages developed over time. In fact, the English
spoken only six hundred years ago would be almost unrecognizable to us today!
language development - the steady growth and change of a language; languages took
over a thousand years to get to what we speak today
Anthropologists have many different theories about how human language developed. Some animals
have a wide range of calls which they make instinctively when they see food, potential threats, rivals or
mates. It is possible that human language began as a refinement of these instinctive calls. It is also
possible that early humans made sounds that imitated things that they heard in the natural world around
them.
Studies of the fossils of early humans suggest that the shape of the vocal tract - the part of the throat
where sounds are made - may have changed about 70,000 years ago in such a way as to enable early
humans to make a much wider range of sounds. By the same time, humans had developed brains which
were as large as modern humans. These developments would have allowed humans to think complex
thoughts and communicate them. Archeologists note that signs of early human culture such as cave
paintings and burial rituals appeared very quickly, suggesting that complex language and culture
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Wikibooks Wikijunior Languages
emerged together over a short period of time. There is no way of knowing exactly what early human
language was like as it emerged long before written records.

What is grammar? Why is it important?
Grammar is a set of rules on how you should use the words so everybody will understand what you
really mean. If the words are bricks, then the grammar is a manual that explains how to make house of
them. In the example above you see the two ways the grammar can work, that is by putting the words
in certain sequence or by changing the words.
When you think about a language, you'll probably think about the words in the first place. It is logical:
you hear words, you can "feel" them, while you don't feel grammar directly. But grammar is at least as
important as the words are. You can not have a language with the words only but no grammar. Not
convinced yet? Try the following example:
You have the following words: I, dad, my, love. Having only these words but no grammar, you can
make a lot of combinations of them, like "I my dad love" or "My love I dad", but nobody will
understand what you really mean. If you want everybody to understand exactly what you mean, you
have to make the next sentence: "I love my dad". Thus the words have to stand in exact sequence.
Another example from English might be "Susan helped Tony." We can easily see how word order is
important if we were to rearrange it to say "Tony helped Susan." This expresses a quite different idea,
but uses the same words. So word order is important in English grammar.
This is not true of every language, though. Russian, for example, has a free word order. Changing the
order of the words does not change the meaning of the sentence. How is this possible? Russian relies
on markers to show which word is the subject and which is the object.

Why Not Just use One Language?
It may seem obvious to just create one language for everybody to use. Luckily, several linguists felt the
same way. They made up what we call constructed languages. But, languages are a big part of a
people's culture and identity and most of them have long interesting histories. People aren't willing to
give them up. It is also very hard to become fluent in a language. It may seem natural to you to speak
English, but it is actually very hard for many adults to learn.
linguist - someone who studies languages
constructed language - a language made up scientifically
fluency - being able to speak a language without any trouble
Many linguists believe that there was originally only one language. However, when people are isolated
from each other for thousands of years, the language that they speak evolves. Over time, slight changes
in how people spoke built up until different tribes could no longer understand each other.

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Constructed Languages
Constructed languages are special languages. They aren't developed "naturally", but are created by
people. People had various reasons to create new languages. Some thought an international language
would help people from different countries to understand each other better and to have less conflicts.
Esperanto is the best known example of this kind of language, and is the only constructed language to
achieve a large number of speakers. Some estimates for the number of speakers of Esperanto are as
high as 2 million.
Some constructed languages are a part of imaginary world, like Klingon, which was created specially
for the science fiction series Star Trek. Fictional languages for different races in the Lord of the Rings
trilogy have also been developed. There are even languages that were created without any purpose
beyond being just for fun. Toki Pona is such a language.

Unique Languages
Some languages do not have any tenses. This means that there is only one way to say a verb. Imagine
saying I go to school yesterday. In these languages, words like yesterday and tomorrow are used to say
when you did something. Other languages even use pictures!
tense - a form of a verb that describes a time for an action; for example, "I went," "I am
going", and "I will go" are in past, present, and future tense. They are different tenses
because they describe when I did the action of going.
verb - a word that describes an action

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Wikibooks Wikijunior Languages

A rabic
.

What writing system(s) does this language use?
The Arabic language consists of 28 letters, and has three long vowels which are part of the main
alphabet. Short vowels or harakat are also used but are not considered part of the alphabet and are often
left out of modern day newspapers and are used mostly in formal texts and to help those who are not as
familiar with the Arabic language to pronounce the words properly. The Arabic language shares it
letters loosely with Urdu and Farsi, although some letters may be different and there are some
additional letters as well.
A sample of Arabic writing can be found here.

How many people speak this language?
Arabic has 206 million native speakers and 24 million people speak it as a second language; making it
the 5th most spoken language in the world.

Where is this language spoken?
Arabic is spoken across the Middle East, particularly in the Arabian Peninsula, as well as in North
Africa, and in portions of Saharan and Sub-Saharan Africa. Since Muslims believe the Qur'an, the holy
book of Islam, can only truly be read in Arabic, it is fairly common for people in other predominantly
Islamic countries to understand religious words in Arabic.
While the Arabic used in the Qur'an is very complicated, it is still the standard for Arabic grammar
today. However, most regions that speak Arabic have developed their own forms of the language that
are used casually. This means that someone from Morocco who speaks Arabic might have trouble
understanding someone from Iraq or Yemen unless they speak standard Arabic.

Who are some famous authors or poets in this language?
The Prophet Muhammad, although he never wrote down the Qur'an, recited the Qur'an to people
around Arabia, converting them to Islam. The Qur'an's texts are often considered the most beautiful and
poetic verses of Arabic ever created.

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Wikibooks Wikijunior Languages

What is the history of this language?
In the the third century B.C.E., Natabeans, a tribe of people in Asia,
settled near in the north part of the Arabic Peninsula. They spoke a
language very similar to Arabic, however they still wrote in an early
language, Aramaic.
Modern Arabic first truly formed when Arabic and Amharic
combined in the mid fourth century C.E. It stood out among other
new Semitic Languages for its ability to not be overtaken by other,
already existent, languages.
The Qur'an is the holy book of Islam

Around the sixth century C.E., Arabic "took over" another language
found in the Arabic peninsula, Sabaic, because the chief religious text, the Qur'an, was written and
spoken only in Arabic. Although Sabaic exists today as a spoken language, only a small number of
people use it.

What are some basic words in this language that I can learn?
•
•
•
•
•
•
•

Ahlan means "Hello" ‫أﻫﻼ‬
Ma'a salama is said to say "Good Bye", but has a literal meaning of "Peace be
with you". ‫مع السﻼمة‬
Ismee means "My name" ‫إسمي‬
Min fadlak means "Please" ‫من فضلك‬
Shukran means "Thank you" ‫شكرا‬
Uhibuki means "I love you" ‫ أحبك‬if you saying that to a girl.
Uhibuka means "I love you" ‫ أحبك‬if you saying that to a boy.

The Arabic
letters for
"Ahlan"

To introduce yourself you would say: "Ahlan, ana ismi" then your name ...‫ أنا إسمي‬، ‫أﻫﻼ‬
If you are saying hello to your friend you would say: "Ahlan ya" then your friends name
To ask someone their name you would say: "Ma ismik?" for a girl ‫ ما إسمك ؟‬or "Ma ismak?" for a
boy ‫ما إسمك ؟‬

References
•

Terri DeYoung

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Wikibooks Wikijunior Languages

C hinese
.

What writing system(s) does this language use?
Chinese is written with hànzì, a picture-like writing system. However, many English-speaking students
learn to pronounce Chinese (or "Zhong-wen") using a Romanization system called Pinyin. See below
for some examples.
So how do characters work? Does Chinese have an alphabet? No, Chinese does not have an
alphabet. They do use radicals, which will be explained below. Characters however, are written with
strokes, or different lines. Strokes originally referred to ink calligraphic brushes used in ancient China.
There are three types of characters: pictographic, ideographic, and picto-phonetic. Pictographic
characters are just what they sound like, small drawings of pictures. For example, the character for sun
(ri -which sounds like "zhirrr") looks somewhat like a sun. It is a 4 stroke character.
alphabet - all the letters of a language
character - a letter, number, or punctuation mark
Ideographic characters are used for things that are a bit more difficult to describe than with just a
drawing. Love, hate, anger, happiness, goodness—all of these are very hard to crystallize with a
picture. Ideographic characters try to address this problem by using different pictures to convey
meaning. Going to back to the goodness example, the Chinese word for goodness, “hao”, is depicted
using two separate characters—a woman and a child.
Picto-phonetic characters are characters that use pictures, like pictographic characters, only they hint at
how the character sounds by including other similar-sounding characters within it. Sometimes these
characters are radicals; other times they are simply other characters.
Radicals are the closest thing that Chinese has to what English speakers would call an alphabet.
Radicals, like an alphabet, allow speakers to reuse portions of the language. And since Chinese has
some 10,000 plus characters in usage, radicals become very useful to allow for fast memorization of a
character. Characters will get some of their meaning and/or sound from a radical (like picto-phonetic
characters). You can imagine radicals as a foundation, or base, of the Chinese language. It’s sort of like
combining Latin roots and our modern alphabet.
Are there different ways of writing Chinese? Yes, there are two ways of writing Chinese, simplified
and traditional. Simplified was invented by the PRC (People’s Republic of China) to increase literacy,
or reading, levels in China. Traditional is as you can guess, the “traditional” way of writing Chinese. It
is used in places such as Taiwan, which does not accept the PRC’s rule. It is also used in traditional
texts, paintings, genealogical charts, food packaging, and more! If you want to live in China, it is handy
to know both simplified and traditional, as you are likely to run across both forms.

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How many people speak this language?
Mandarin Chinese is the most common language in the world. In fact, 1.3 billion people speak this
dialect of Chinese. That's about one out of every five people! However, like most languages, there are
many other dialects, such as Taiwanese, Shanghainese, and Cantonese.
dialect - one form of a language; sometimes different regions of a country develop slightly
different forms of a language, called dialects

Where is this language spoken?
Chinese is mostly spoken is the People's Republic of China and the Republic of China (aka Taiwan). It
is also one of the four official languages of Singapore (together with English, Malay, and Tamil).

What is the history of this language?
China has a history of five thousand years of continuous civilization, so it is probable that the Chinese
language is at least as old as this. Archeologists have found Chinese pictographic writing on pottery,
bones and turtle shells from as long ago as the Shang dynasty, over 3000 years ago. By the time of the
Qin dynasty, 2000 years ago, Chinese writing had been standardized and it has changed very little since
then.
Because Chinese is not an alphabetic language, it is hard to know exactly what the language sounded
like in the distant past.
There are now five main spoken dialects of Chinese including Mandarin, Shanghainese and Cantonese.
These are as different from each other as English and German and could be thought of as separate
languages - but speakers of all the dialects use the same writing system.

Who are some famous authors or poets in this language?
Poets (in order of fame):
Li, Bai
Du, Fu
Wang, Wei
Tao, Yuanming
Authors (in chronological order of birth):
Sun, Wu (author of "The Art of War")
Li, Er (founder of Taoism)
Confucius (most influential philosopher in Korean, Chinese and Japanese societies)
Lu, Ji (author of "On Literature," a piece of literature criticism)
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Wikibooks Wikijunior Languages
Liu, Xie (author of "Carving of a Dragon by a Literary Mind," a piece on literature aesthetics)
Chen, Duxiu (one of the main promoters of modern written Chinese language)
Lu, Xun (one of the most influential writers of the 20th century)
Hu, Shi (one of the main promoters of modern written Chinese language)

What are some basic words in this language that I can learn?
Basic Greetings:
•

你好!- Ni hao! - "Hello!"

•

再見!- Zai jian! - "Good bye"

•

明天見!- Mingtian jian! - "See you tomorrow!"

•

我的名子是霖達!- Wo de ming zi jiao Linda! - "My name is Linda!"

Courtesies:
•

請您 - Qing nin - "Please may I ask (you)"

•

謝謝 - Xie xie - "Thank you."

•

不客氣 - Bu keqi - "Your welcome."

•

對不起 - Dui bu qi - "Sorry."

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真對不起 - Zhen dui bu qi - "I'm very sorry."

•

沒關係 - Mei guanxi - "No problem, don't worry about it."

What is a simple song/poem/story that I can learn in this
language?
Big Head
Characters
(Simplified)

Characters
(Traditional)

大大

大頭大頭

下雨不愁

下雨不愁

你有雨

你有雨傘

我有大

我有大頭

Pronunciation

English

Big head, big head
Da tou da tou
When it rains there is nothing to
Xia yu bu chou
dread
Ni you yu san
You have an umbrella
Wo you da tou
I have my big head

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Wikibooks Wikijunior Languages

D utch
.

What writing system(s) does this language use?
Dutch uses the Latin alphabet, just like English, but 'ij' is sometimes treated as a single letter,
equivalent to 'Y'. At the beginning of a place name, both letters are capitalized (e.g. IJsselmeer).

How many people speak this language?
About 25 million people speak Dutch.

Where is this language spoken?
The majority of Dutch speakers live in the
Netherlands and the northern part of Belgium
(Flanders). Dutch is also spoken in Aruba,
Suriname, the Netherlands Antilles and a tiny corner
of northern France. Dutch used to be spoken in
Indonesia, which was a Dutch colony until 1942,
but now only the older generation speak it.
Afrikaans, one of the langauges of European settlers
in Africa, is based on Dutch. Dutch migrants to the Dutch is spoken in Europe and in communities around the world.
US and Australia, and more recently to Spain, France and Italy, often continue to use Dutch.

What is the history of this language?
Scholars believe that Dutch became an independent language in about 600AD. Before it was just one of
numerous West Germanic dialects.
The best known example of very old Dutch text is "Hebban olla vogala nestas hagunnan, hinase hic
enda tu, wat unbidan we nu" ("All birds have started making nests, except me and you, what are we
waiting for"). It was written around 1100. For a long time, scholars thought that it was the oldest Dutch
text, but now an older text has been discovered: "Visc flot aftar themo uuatare" ("A fish was swimming
in the water") and "Gelobistu in got alamehtigan fadaer" ("Do you believe in God the almighty
father"). These were written around the year 900.

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What are some basic words in this language that I can learn?
Groeten
Hoi/Hallo.
Goededag.
Goedeavond.
Goedenacht.
Hoe gaat het met je?
Wat kan ik voor u
doen?
Dank u wel.
Alstublieft.
Afscheid nemen
Tot ziens
Dag!
Vaarwel!

Greetings
Hi/Hello.
Good day.
Good evening.
Good night.
How are you?
What can I do for you?
Thank you.
Please.
Good-byes
Goodbye!
Goodbye!
Farewell!

What is a simple song/poem/story that I can learn in this
language?
In Dutch:
Je bent de zon,
Je bent de zee,
Je bent de liefde,
Ga nu met mij mee
In English:
You are the sun,
You are the sea,
You are the love,
Now go together with me

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E nglish
.

What writing system(s) does this language use?
English uses the Italian alphabet, which was originally used in Latin. Today, it is used in almost all
European languages.

How many people speak this language?
380 million learned English as children. But possibly one billion people have learned the language as
adults. Overall, English is the second most widely spoken language in the world, after Chinese.

Where is this language spoken?

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What is the history of this language?
The oldest form of English is called Old English, or Anglo-Saxon. Old English looks very different
from the English spoken today and for the most part is not understandable by speakers of Modern
English.
Here is an example of Old English from "Beowulf":
Hwæt! We Gardena in geardagum,
þeodcyninga, þrym gefrunon,
hu ða æþelingas ellen fremedon.
Oft Scyld Scefing sceaþena þreatum
Old English later became Middle English which is much more
like Modern English.
Here's an example of the Middle English spoken during the
1300s, from Geoffrey Chaucer's The Canterbury Tales:
Bifil that in that seson, on a day,
In Southwerk at the Tabard as I lay
Redy to wenden on my pilgrymage
To Caunterbury with ful devout corage,
At nyght was come into that hostelrye
Wel nyne and twenty in a compaignye
Of sondry folk, by aventure yfalle
In felaweshipe, and pilgrimes were they alle,
That toward Caunterbury wolden ryde.
Geoffrey Chaucer

In the 1500s, William Shakespeare played a large part in the creation of modern English. Both
Shakespeare and Chaucer wrote in the English vernacular. Before them, most important works were
written in Latin, or sometimes French. Latin was considered a professional language that scholars used.
Chaucer and Shakespeare were some of the first to write important stories in English.
vernacular - the native language of a country

Who are some famous authors or poets in this language?
William Shakespeare, who wrote in verse, is the author of dozens of plays and over a hundred sonnets.
Many popular English prose authors, such as Mary Shelley, the author of Frankenstein, Jane Austin,
the author of Pride and Prejudice, and Charles Dickens, the author of A Tale of Two Cities, come from
the Romantic and Victorian eras, which were during the 1800s.
verse - writing in poetic form; writing not in sentences
prose - writing in sentence form; the opposite of verse

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References
•
•
•
•

"Beowulf" www.humanities.mcmaster.ca
"Vernacular." Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. 15 Mar 2006, 17:30 UTC. 2 Apr 2006, 12:49
<http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Vernacular&oldid=43916157>.
"English language." Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. 2 Apr 2006, 10:53 UTC. 2 Apr 2006,
12:50 <http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=English_language&oldid=46580990>.
"English literature." Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. 30 Mar 2006, 16:53 UTC. 2 Apr 2006,
12:50 <http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=English_literature&oldid=46184672>.

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E speranto
.

What writing system(s) does this language use?
Esperanto uses the Latin alphabet, but does not use letters q, w, x, y. Esperanto also has six special
letters: ĉ (like ch in chair), ĝ (like j in John), ĥ (like ordinary English h, but in Esperanto h is
pronounced harder), ĵ (like s in treasure), ŝ (like sh in fish) and ŭ (like w in why). Now, there is a kind
of a problem: ordinary keyboards don't have them! Esperanto-speakers solve it by putting x after the
letter, so cx means the same as ĉ. There is no danger to read the word wrong since x is normally not
used in Esperanto.

How many people speak this language?
The answer is: nobody really knows. There are no exact numbers. It is most likely that there are
between one-hundred-thousand and two-million Esperanto-speakers. Most of them have learned to
speak it, only about one-thousand people speak Esperanto as native language.

Where is this language spoken?
Esperanto is spoken all over the world. Really! But nowhere is it the language of the majority of
people. Esperanto-speakers live in the same places as speakers of other languages.

What is the history of this language?
Unlike most other languages, we know almost exactly when and where Esperanto
was born. Esperanto was constructed (therefore it is a constructed language) by
Polish eye doctor Ludovic Zamenhof. That means he created the language himself.
He published the first book about Esperanto in 1887. Originally the language had no
name it was simply called "international language". Esperanto, which means "He
who hopes" was a nickname of Zamenhof, but later it became the name of the
language itself.

Ludovic Zamenhov

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Wikibooks Wikijunior Languages

Who are some famous authors or poets in this language?
The first author to write in Esperanto was Zamenhof himself.
Other known Esperanto authors are William Auld, Julio Baghy, Kálmán Kalocsay, Mauro Nervi.

What are some basic words in this language that I can learn?
•
•
•
•

hello - saluton
good-bye - ĝis la revido
yes - jes
no - ne

What is a simple song/poem/story that I can learn in this
language?
"La Espero" ("The Hope") is the traditional anthem of Esperanto. It was written by Zamenhof as a
poem and later set to music. This is the first verse:

La Espero
Esperanto
En la mondon venis nova sento,
tra la mondo iras forta voko;
per flugiloj de facila vento
nun de loko flugu ĝi al loko
Ne al glavo sangon soifanta
ĝi la homan tiras familion:
al la mond' eterne militanta
ĝi promesas sanktan
harmonion.

English
Into the world came a new feeling,
through the world goes a powerful
call;
by means of wings of a gentle wind
now let it fly from place to place.
Not to the sword thirsting for blood
does it draw the human family:
to the world eternally fighting
it promises sacred harmony.

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Wikibooks Wikijunior Languages

E stonian
.

What writing system(s) does this language use?
Estonish uses the Latin Alphabet, however it has 4 extra vowel umlaut letters, which are: Õ/õ, Ä/ä, Ö/ö,
Ü/ü.

How many people speak this language?
One million people speak Estonian, most of whom live in Estonia. There are other places where it is
spoken. (See the section below for that information)

Where is this language spoken?
Estonish is spoken primarily in:
•

Estonia

As a minority languages in:
•
•

Finland
Russia

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Wikibooks Wikijunior Languages

What is the history of this language?
It is believed that the Baltic-Finnic languages evolved from a proto-Finnic language, from which Sami
was separated around 1500-1000 BC. It has been suggested that this proto-Finnic had three dialects:
northern, southern and eastern. The Baltic-Finnic languages separated around the 1st century, but
continued influencing each other. You might see southwestern Finnish dialects have many genuine
Estonian influences.
Around 15'th century The nothen Estonian was at the great cultural influence of German. The wise
German munks wanted to bring the God closer to the native people, so thay invented Estonian literial
language. It was based on German alphbet and one charecter "Õ/õ" was added. As the time passed,
meny words that where borrowed form the German, coaleased. This was the begining of enlightment.
When the Estonian declared themselves a nation, at the beginning of the 20'th centurey, the country
went blumeing. For the first time thay could express themselves freely. This was the golden age of
Estonia, the language was evolved greatly.
The II World War ended the golden age, forces from the east marched in, took the power, and Estonian
was denied to be spoken and tought. At that time meany changes where made, even the structure of
centence was changed - the verb was put at the beginning of the centence. (Not like it is in German).
When estonian people got the power back, Soviet Union was disunified, and the democratical nation
was declared for second time, the cultural shield was broken. New inforamation came in. Lots of slang
word and frases came in form english and english speaking countries. Now... To be continued

Intresting fact
Finnish and Estonian are closely related languages. It's been said that nothern Estonians can even
understand what is being said by Finnish people, even if thay have never learned Finnish before. This
could easily be true in many cases.
Remarkably it isn't 2 way, Finnish have to put alot more of effort in learning Estonian, then Estonian to
Finnish.

Who are some famous authors or poets in this language?
Anton Hansen Tammsaare
Friedebert Tuglas
Friedrich Reinhold Kreutzwald
Johann Voldemar Jannsen
Jaan Kross
Lennart Meri

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What are some basic words in this language that I can learn?
Vastusd
Jah
Ei
Võibolla

Responses
Yes
No
Maybe

Tervitused
Tere
Tere hommikust
Tere päevast
Head ööd
Mis lahti?
Mis toimub?
Mitte palju.
Hüvastijätud
Headaega.
Hüvasti.
Näeme homme.
Hoiame ühendust.
Peatse jällenägemiseni.
Kasulikud fraasid
Kas te võiksite juhatada mind tualettruumi?
(polite)
Kus on tualettruum?
Kui palju see maksab?
Ma tahan piima.
Sa meeldid mulle.
Mu koer sõi mu kodutöö.
Ja...
Õlu
Lahe
Öö
Jää
Kutt
Naised
Hea
Halb
Ma armastan sind

Greetings
Hello
Good morning
Good afternoon
Good night
What's up?
What's going on?
Not much.
Good-byes
Good-bye.
Bye.
See you tomorrow.
Keep in touch.
See you soon.
Useful phrases
Could you tell me where the bathroom
is?
Where is the bathroom?.
How much does it costs?.
I want a milk.
I like you.
My dog ate my homework.
And...
Beer
Cool
Night
Ice
Dude
Females
Good
Bad
I love you

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Wikibooks Wikijunior Languages

What is a simple song/poem/story that I can learn in this
language?
At Christmas time, you might like to sing Christmas carols about your tree. The Estonians do, too. This
song is originaly called "O Tannenbaum", but it's called "Oh kuusepuu" in Estonian. It has also been
translated into English. The song was first written by Ernst Anschütz in 1824.
Here is the original German song, O Tannenbaum's first verse:
"Oh kuusepuu"
Oh kuusepuu, oh kuusepuu
Kui haljad on su oksad!
Ei mitte üksi suisel a’alal.
Vaid talvel ka siin külmal maal
Oh kuusepuu, oh kuusepuu
Kui haljad on su oksad!

"O Christmas Tree"
O Christmas tree, O Christmas tree!
How are thy leaves so verdant!
Not only in the summertime,
But even in winter is thy prime.
O Christmas tree, O Christmas tree,
How are thy leaves so verdant!

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F innish
.

What writing system(s) does this language use?
Finnish uses the Latin Alphabet, however it has 3 extra letters, which are: Å/å, Ä/ä, and Ö/ö.

How many people speak this language?
Six million people speak Finnish, most of whom live in Finland. There are other places where it is
spoken. (See the section below for that information)

Where is this language spoken?
Finnish is spoken primarily in:
•

Finland

As a minority languages in:
•
•
•
•

Estonia
Sweden
Norway
Russia

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Wikibooks Wikijunior Languages

What is the history of this language?
It is believed that the Baltic-Finnic languages evolved from a proto-Finnic language, from which Sami
was separated around 1500–1000 BC. It has been suggested that this proto-Finnic had three dialects:
northern, southern and eastern. The Baltic-Finnic languages separated around the 1st century, but
continued influencing each other. Therefore, the Eastern Finnish dialects are genetically Eastern protoFinnic, with many Eastern features, and the Southwestern Finnish dialects have many genuine Estonian
influences.
Written Finnish did not exist until created by Mikael Agricola, a Finnish bishop in the 16th century. He
based his orthography (writing rules) on Swedish, German, and Latin. Later, the written form was
revised by many people. It was somewhat different from contemporary Finnish orthography as
different letters (such as c, x, q, and w – nowadays much less common) were used.
The Reformation marked the real beginning of writing in Finnish. In the 16th century, major literary
achievements were composed in Finnish by people like Paavali Juusten, Erik Sorolainen, and Jaakko
Finno, as well as Agricola himself. In the 17th century, books produced in Finland were written in
Finnish, Danish, Norwegian, Estonian, German, and Swedish. However, the most important books
were still written in Latin. Finnish and Swedish were small languages of lesser importance.

Who are some famous authors or poets in this language?
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•

Eino Leino
J.L. Runeberg
Tommy Tabermann
Edith Södergran
L. Onerva
A.W. Yrjänä
Jari Tervo
Mika Waltari
Minna Canth
Aleksis Kivi
Elias Lönnrot
Tove Jansson
Pirkko Saisio

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Wikibooks Wikijunior Languages

What are some basic words in this language that I can learn?
Tervehdyksiä
Moi!
Terve!
Huomenta!
Hyvää yötä!
Mitä kuuluu?
Hyvää.
Hyvästejä
Hei hei!
Heippa!
Nähdään huomenna!
Nähdään!
Nähdään pian!
Yksinkertaisia ilmaisuja
Puhutko englantia?
Missä vessa on?
Voisitko puhua
hitaammin?
Paljonko se maksaa?
Pidän...
En pidä...
Minun nimeni on...

Greetings
Hi!
Hello!
Good morning!
Good night!
How are you?
I'm fine.
Good-byes
Bye-bye!
Good-bye!
See you tomorrow!
See you!
See you soon!
Basic phrases
Do you speak English?
Where is the bathroom?
Could you speak slower please?
How much does it cost?
I like...
I don't like...
My name is...

What is a simple song/poem/story that I can learn in this
language?
Mustan kissan paksut posket.

Lit. Thick cheeks of a black cat.
(Children's poem - language learning; to help distinguish between
the pronunciation of '-ks-' and '-sk-'.)

Ärrän kierrän orren ympäri,
ässän pistän taskuun.

Lit. The R I shall put around a beam, the S I shall put in my pocket.
(Children's poem; double consonants.)

Vesihiisi sihisi hississä.

Lit. The water demon hissed in the elevator.
(Children's poem.)

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F rench
.

What writing system(s) does this language use?
French uses the Roman alphabet just as English does.

How many people speak this language?
There are 87 million people who can speak French natively. But there 182 million French speakers
total, which means that 95 million people decided to learn the language as adults! This is because there
is a lot of interesting literature in French. French is also a language often used in diplomacy.
native speaker - someone who learned to speak a language as a child
literature - books, like the one you are reading now

Where is this language spoken?

As you probably already figured out, French was first spoken in France. Three of France's neighbors -Belgium, Switzerland, and Luxembourg -- also use French as one of their official languages. And
because of colonization, French is spoken in Canada (the majority in Québec), Louisiana, and Africa.
colonization - going to and conquering other countries in order to live there; because
England colonized America, most people in America now speak English.
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Wikibooks Wikijunior Languages

What is the history of this language?
French was created from the Latin language, just like Spanish, Italian, Portuguese and Romanian. It
was first used by the Franks, a people who lived in what we now call France. In the 1600s, French
people came to Canada and settled in the area we now call Québec. Some French people (who were
expulsed from Canada) also settled in Louisiana, which was named in honor of King Louis XIV of
France. Louisiana is now a state of the United States. In the 1800s, France conquered large parts of
northern, western and central Africa, mostly in the Sahara desert. As France took over ruling these
territories and their populations, they established French as the language of instruction in schools, and
as the official language of the government. Over time, French became the second native language of
many African people, although local languages are still used most often in the home. Although France
no longer rules these former colonies, they still use French in daily life.

Who are some famous authors or poets in this language?
•
•
•
•

Victor Hugo (1802 - 1885)
Alexandre Dumas (1802 - 1870)
Jules Verne (1828 - 1905)
Francois Marie Arouet/Voltaire(1694 - 1778)

What are some basic words in this language that I can learn?
Les salutations
Salut
Bonjour
Bonsoir
Bonne nuit
Quoi de neuf ?
Pas grand chose.
Les adieux
Au revoir.
À demain.
À tout à l'heure.
À bientôt.
Phrases de base
Parlez-vous anglais?
Où sont les toilettes?
Plus lentement, s'il vous
plaît.
J'aime . . .
Je n'aime pas . . .
Je m'appelle. . .

Greetings
Hi/Bye
Hello
Good evening
Good night
What's up?
Not much.
Good-byes
Good-bye.
See you tomorrow.
See you!
See you soon.
Basic phrases
Do you speak English?
Where is the bathroom?
(Speak) slower please.
I like . . .
I don't like . . .
My name is. . .

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Wikibooks Wikijunior Languages

What is a simple song/poem/story that I can learn in this
language?
Petit Papa Noël
Petit Papa Noël
Quand tu descendras du ciel
Avec des jouets par milliers
N'oublie pas mes petits
souliers
Mais avant de partir
Il faudra bien te couvrir
Dehors tu vas avoir si froid
C'est un peu à cause de moi

Little Santa Claus
When you come down from the
sky
With toys in the thousands
Don't forget my little shoes
But before leaving
It will be necessary to cover you
Outside you will be so cold
It's a little because of me

Dame Tartine
Il était une Dame Tartine
Dans un beau palais de beurre
frais.
La muraille était de praline,
Le parquet était de croquets,
La chambre à coucher
De crème de lait,
Le lit de biscuit,
Les rideaux d'anis.

There once was a Dame Tartine (tartine is a kind of
sandwich)
Who lived in a beautiful palace of fresh butter.
The walls were made of praline,
The floors were of croquettes,
The bedroom
Of fresh cream,
The bed, a biscuit,
And curtains of anise.

Frère Jacques
Frère Jacques, Frère Jacques
Are you sleeping, are you sleeping?
Dormez-vous, Dormez-vous?
Brother John, Brother John.
Sonnez les matines, Sonnez les
Morning bells are ringing, morning bells are
matines.
ringing.
Ding, ding, dong. Ding, ding, dong.
This song can be sung as a 'round', which is when one person or group starts the song, and when they
arrive at the end of the first verse, the second person or group begins.

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References
•
•

"French language." Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. 31 Mar 2006, 16:33 UTC. 2 Apr 2006,
06:51 <http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=French_language&oldid=46334627>.
French Wikibook

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German
.

.

.

.

.

What writing system(s) does this language use?
German uses the Latin alphabet just like English, French, and Spanish, with one extra letter, the eszett,
which is pronounced "ss". It also has umlauts, which are not pronounced in English.
eszett - A letter which is only found in the German alphabet, it looks like this: ß
umlaute - Three German alphabet vowels that have two dots above them, they look like
this: Ää, Öö, Üü

How many people speak this language?
About 110 million speakers speak German natively. However another 120 million speak it as a second
language, these people chose to learn it, they are not native speakers of the language.
native speaker - someone who learned to speak a language as a child

Where is this language spoken?
German is spoken primarily in:
•
•
•
•

Germany
Austria
Switzerland (beside 3 other
official languages)
Liechtenstein

As a minority languages in:
•
•
•
•
•
•

Luxembourg
France
Belgium
The Netherlands
Namibia
Denmark
German is spoken widely in Europe and in communities around the world.

And in small communities all over
the world! German is also the most spoken language in Europe, and 10th in the whole world!
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Wikibooks Wikijunior Languages

What is the history of this language?
The history of the German language begins with the High German consonant shift during the Migration
period, separating South Germanic dialects from common West Germanic. As Germany was divided
into many different states, the only force working for a unification of German during a period of
several hundred years was the general preference of writers trying to write in a way that could be
understood in the largest possible area. When Martin Luther translated the Bible, he based his
translation mainly on this already developed language, which was the most widely understood language
at this time. It took until the middle of the 18th century to create a standard that was widely accepted,
thus ending the period of Early New High German. Until about 1800, standard German was almost
only a written language. At this time, people in urban northern Germany, who spoke dialects very
different from Standard German, learnt it almost like a foreign language and tried to pronounce it as
close to the spelling as possible. Prescriptive pronunciation guides used to consider northern German
pronunciation to be the standard. However, the actual pronunciation of standard German varies from
region to region. Media and written works are almost all produced in standard German (often called
Hochdeutsch in German) which is understood in all areas where German is spoken, except by preschool children in areas which speak only dialect, for example Switzerland. However, in this age of
television, even they now usually learn to understand Standard German before school age. The first
dictionary of the Brothers Grimm, the 16 parts of which were issued between 1852 and 1860. Official
revisions of some of these rules were not issued until 1998, when the German spelling reform of 1996
was officially promulgated by governmental representatives of all German-speaking countries.

Who are some famous authors or poets in this language?
Some famous authors and poets in this language include the Grimm brothers, Schiller &
Goethe.
The Brothers Grimm (Jacob; 1785 - 1863, Wilhelm; 1786 - 1859) were Jacob and Wilhelm Grimm,
German professors who were best known for publishing collections of authentic folk tales and fairy
tales. Their fairy tales are very famous, mostly because Disney made animated movies based on three
of them: Cinderella, Sleeping Beauty, and Snow White. Many of the other fairy tales are very famous,
and untouched by Disney. These include Hansel and Gretel, Little Red Riding Hood, Rumpelstiltskin,
and Rapunzel.
Johann Christoph Friedrich von Schiller (November 10, 1759 – May 9, 1805) was a German poet,
philosopher, historian, and dramatist. His childhood and youth were spent in relative poverty, although
he attended both village and Latin schools. He eventually studied medicine. At school, he wrote his
first play, The Robbers, about a group of naïve revolutionaries and their tragic failure. In 1780, he
obtained a post as regimental doctor in Stuttgart. Following the performance of Die Räuber (The
Robbers) in Mannheim, in 1781 he was arrested and forbidden to publish any further works. He fled
Stuttgart in 1783, coming via Leipzig and Dresden to Weimar in 1787. In 1789, he was appointed
professor of History and Philosophy in Jena, where he wrote only historical works. He returned to
Weimar in 1799, where Goethe convinced him to return to playwriting. He and Goethe founded the
Weimar Theater which became the leading theater in Germany, leading to a dramatic renaissance. He
remained in Weimar, Saxe-Weimar until his death at 45 from tuberculosis.

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Johann Wolfgang von Goethe (28 August 1749–22 March 1832) was a German polymath: he was a
painter, novelist, dramatist, poet, humanist, scientist, philosopher, and for ten years chief minister of
state at Weimar. Goethe was one of the paramount figures of German literature and the movement of
German classicism in the late 18th and early 19th centuries. This movement coincides with
Enlightenment, Sturm und Drang, Sensibility ("Empfindsamkeit"), and Romanticism, in all of which he
participated to varying degrees. As the author of Faust and Theory of Colours, Goethe's influence
spread across Europe, and for the next century, his works were a primary source of inspiration in
music, drama, poetry, and even philosophy.

German is also the language of classical music, as it was the language of Mozart,
Beethoven, and Bach just to name a few. Read on for more detail on these artists...
Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart (January 27, 1756 – December 5, 1791) is among the most significant
and enduringly popular composers of European classical music. His enormous output includes works
that are widely acknowledged as pinnacles of symphonic, chamber, piano, operatic, and choral music.
Many of his works are part of the standard concert repertory and are widely recognized as masterpieces
of the classical style.
Johann Sebastian Bach (21 March 1685 – 28 July 1750) was a prolific German composer and
organist whose sacred and secular works for choir, orchestra and solo instruments drew together almost
all of the strands of the Baroque style and brought it to its ultimate maturity. Although he introduced no
new musical forms, he enriched the prevailing German style with a robust and dazzling contrapuntal
technique, a seemingly effortless control of harmonic and motivic organization from the smallest to the
largest scales, and the adaptation of rhythms and textures from abroad, particularly Italy and France.
Ludwig van Beethoven (December 17, 1770 – March 26, 1827) was a German composer of classical
music, who lived predominantly in Vienna, Austria. Beethoven is widely regarded as one of history's
supreme composers, and he produced notable works even after losing his hearing. He was one of the
greatest figures in the transitional period between the Classical and Romantic eras in music. His
reputation has inspired — and in many cases intimidated — composers, musicians, and audiences who
were to come after him.

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What are some basic words in this language that I can learn?
Greetings
Hi/Hello
Good morning
Good day
Good evening
Good night
Good-byes
Later!
Goodbye!
See you soon!
Basic Phases
Do you speak English?
Where is the
bathroom?
Excuse me
How are you?
I like ...
I don't like ...
My name is ...

(Die) Begrüßungen
Hi/Hallo
Guten Morgen
Guten Tag
Guten Abend
Gute Nacht
Abschied
Tschüß!
Auf Wiedersehen!
Bis Bald!
Grundlegende Phasen
Sprechen Sie Englisch?
Wo ist die Toilette?
Entschuldigung
Wie geht's?
Ich mag ...
Ich mag ... nicht.
Ich heiße.../Mein Name ist...

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Wikibooks Wikijunior Languages

What is a simple song/poem/story that I can learn in this
language?
At Christmas time, you might like to sing Christmas carols about your tree. The Germans do, too. They
have a song called "O Tannenbaum" which has also been translated into English. The song was first
written by Ernst Anschütz in 1824.
Here is the original German song, O Tannenbaum:
O Tannenbaum, o Tannenbaum, wie grün sind deine Blätter! Du grünst nicht nur zur
Sommerzeit, Nein auch im Winter, wenn es schneit. O Tannenbaum, o Tannenbaum, wie
treu sind deine Blätter! O Tannenbaum, o Tannenbaum! Du kannst mir sehr gefallen! Wie
oft hat nicht zur Weihnachtszeit Ein Baum von dir mich hoch erfreut! O Tannenbaum, o
Tannenbaum! Du kannst mir sehr gefallen! O Tannenbaum, o Tannenbaum! Dein Kleid
will mich was lehren: Die Hoffnung und Beständigkeit Gibt Trost und Kraft zu jeder Zeit.
O Tannenbaum, o Tannenbaum! Das soll dein Kleid mich lehren.
It is known as "O Christmas Tree" in English and is a very famous song. Here is the English version of
the song:
O Christmas tree, O Christmas tree! How are thy leaves so verdant! O Christmas tree, O
Christmas tree, How are thy leaves so verdant! Not only in the summertime, But even in
winter is thy prime. O Christmas tree, O Christmas tree, How are thy leaves so verdant! O
Christmas tree, O Christmas tree, Much pleasure doth thou bring me! O Christmas tree,
O Christmas tree, Much pleasure doth thou bring me! For every year the Christmas tree,
Brings to us all both joy and glee. O Christmas tree, O Christmas tree, Much pleasure
doth thou bring me! O Christmas tree, O Christmas tree, Thy candles shine out brightly!
O Christmas tree, O Christmas tree, Thy candles shine out brightly! Each bough doth hold
its tiny light, That makes each toy to sparkle bright. O Christmas tree, O Christmas tree,
Thy candles shine out brightly!

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G reek
.

What writing system(s) does this language use?
Greek has used the Greek alphabet, the first to introduce the concept of a vowel, since the 9th century
B.C. Before this, it used Linear B and the Cypriot syllabaries. A sample of Greek writing can be found
here.
vowel - A, E, I, O, U in English

How many people speak this language?
About 15 million people speak Greek.

Where is this language spoken?
Greek is spoken mostly in Greece and Cyprus (EU language) but some people speak Greek in Bulgaria,
Albania and Turkey. Greek is also spoken by millions of Greeks who live in the U.S, in European
countries, Australia, and in various African countries.

What is the history of this language?
Ancient Greek was the language of the Ancient Greek empire. It was similar to Modern Greek to read,
but pronounced very differently. It gradually evolved into Modern Greek over time - it is one of the
only languages to have a continuous history for more than 2000 years!

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Wikibooks Wikijunior Languages

Who are some famous authors or poets in this language?
Greek literature has a continuous history of some 3000 years.
Homer who wrote the Iliad and the Odyssey. (Classical Greek)
Vitsentzos Kornaros who wrote Erotokritos. (Modern Greek)
Dionysios Solomos who wrote Ύμνος Στην Ελευθερία (Hymn to Freedom) the poem that became
modern Greece's National Anthem: "Απ' τα κόκκαλα βγαλμένη, των Ελλήνων τα ιερά, και σαν πρώτα
ανδριωμένη, χαίρε, ω χαίρε λευτεριά"
Andreas Kalvos
Costis Palamas
Constantine Cavafy
Nikos Kazantzakis
Giorgos Seferis, winner of the 1963 Nobel Prize for Literature
Odysseus Elytis, winner of the 1979 Nobel Prize for Literature

What are some basic words in this language that I can learn?
Χαιρετισμοί
Γεια σου(singular) / Γεια σας(plural)
Χαίρετε
Καλημέρα
Καλησπέρα
Καληνύχτα
Αποχαιρετισμοί
Γεια σου(singular) / Γεια σας(plural)
Χαίρετε
Τα λέμε (άυριο)
Στο επανειδειν
Άλλα
Eυχαριστώ (πολύ)
Σε ευχαριστώ(singular) /Σας
ευχαριστώ(plural)
Παρακαλώ
Συγνώμη
Ναι/Όχι

Greetings
Hello (informal, literally "health")
Hello (formal, literally "happiness")
Good morning
Good evening
Good night
Good-byes
Good-bye (informal, literally "health")
Good-bye (formal, literally
"happiness")
See you (tomorrow)
See you (formal)
Other
Thanks (a lot)
Thank you
Please
Sorry
Yes/No

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Wikibooks Wikijunior Languages

What is a simple song/poem/story that I can learn in this
language?
Here is a Greek version of The Boy Who Cried Wolf, by Chambry. It was translated in 1925-6.
Ποιμὴν παίζων.
Καὶ που παιδίον ποίμνια νέμον ἐφ' ὑψηλοῦ τόπου ἱστάμενον πολλάκις ἀνέκραγε· Βοηθεῖτέ μοι, λύκοι.
Οἱ δὲ ἀγρότεροι τρέχοντες ἐν τῇ ποίμνῃ τοῦτον ηὕρισκον μηδαμῶς ἀληθεύοντα. Τοῦτο δὲ πολλάκις
τοῦ παιδὸς πραξαμένου, οἱ τοιοῦτοι συνήρχοντο καὶ ἀεὶ ψεῦδος εὑρίσκοντες ἀπήρχοντο. Μετὰ δὲ
ταῦτα τοῦ λύκου προσελθόντος, ὁ παῖς ἐβόα· Ὁ λύκος, δεῦτε. Ἐπεὶ δὲ οὐδεὶς ἐπίστευεν οὐδ' ἀπήρχετο
βοηθῆσαι, ὁ λύκος ἀδείας λαβόμενος, εὐκόλως τὴν ποίμνην πᾶσαν διέφθειρεν. Ὁ μῦθος δηλοῖ ὅτι
τοσοῦτον οὐκ ὠφελεῖ τινα τὸ μὴ λαλεῖν τὰ ἀληθῆ ὅσον δεῖ φοβεῖσθαι μήπως ἐκ τούτου οὐδὲ τὰ ἀληθῆ
λέγων εἰσακούσθῃ.
And here is the English version by Perry. It is fable 210.
The Boy Who Cried “Wolf”
There was a boy tending the sheep who would continually go up to the embankment and shout, 'Help,
there's a wolf!' The farmers would all come running only to find out that what the boy said was not
true. Then one day there really was a wolf but when the boy shouted, they didn't believe him and no
one came to his aid. The whole flock was eaten by the wolf. The story shows that this is how liars are
rewarded: even if they tell the truth, no one believes them.

References
•

"Greek language" Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. 6 April 2006 18:01 UTC
< http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Greek_language&oldid=47196372>

•

"Modern Greek literature" Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. 6 April 2006 17:59 UTC
<http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Modern_Greek_literature&oldid=43740309>.

•
•

The Boy Who Cried Wolf. http://www.mythfolklore.net/aesopica/perry/210.htm 10 April 2006
17:40 AEST.
The Boy Who Cried Wolf (in Greek). http://www.mythfolklore.net/aesopica/chambry/318.htm
10 April 2006. 17:41 AEST

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Wikibooks Wikijunior Languages

H ebr e w
.

.

.

What writing system(s) does this language use?
Hebrew uses a right-to-left abjad system. The Hebrew alphabet consists of twenty-four letters and five
final letters, and is derived from the Aramaic alphabet, which in it's turn came from the Phoenician
alphabet, the source of most writing systems known today. In Hebrew, instead of having each letter
make one sound, each letter makes a sound and a vowel. You can find an example of the writing
system here.

How many people speak this language?
Approximately 7 million people speak Hebrew.

Where is this language spoken?
Hebrew is spoken almost all over the world, and is an official language in Israel.

What is the history of this language?
Hebrew is a very old language. It was the language used to write the Old Testament of the Bible, and
was spoken in the middle east. It gradually stopped being a spoken language, until it was revived by
Eliezer ben-Yehuda at around the beginning of the 20th century.

What are some basic words in this language that I can learn?
Basic Greetings:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•

‫ שלום‬- Shalom - Hello!\Good Bye (Literally means "Peace", and is more commonly used as
"Hello" than "Good Bye")
‫ בוקר טוב‬- Boker Tov - Good Morning
‫ ערב טוב‬- Erev Tov - Good Evening
‫ ליילה טוב‬- Laila Tov - Good Night
‫ להתראות‬- Lehitraot - See you later (Sometimes shortened to "‫ 'להית‬- "Lehit")
‫ ?מה נשמע‬- Ma nishma? - How are you?
‫ הכל בסדר‬- Hakol Beseder - Everything is fine

Simple Words
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Wikibooks Wikijunior Languages
•
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‫ כן‬- Ken - Yes
‫ לא‬- Lo - No
‫ אימא‬- Ima - Mother
‫ אבא‬- Aba - Father
‫ כלב‬- Kelev - Dog
‫ חתול‬- *Khatul - Cat

Courtesies

•

‫ תודה‬- Toda - Thank you
‫ סליחה‬- Slikha - Excuse me \ I'm sorry
‫ בבקשה‬- Bevakasha - Please \ Here you go

•

the sound of 'kh' is like a 'h' coming from the back of your throat

•
•

What is a simple song/poem/story that I can learn in this
language?
Little Yonatan*
Hebrew Characters

Pronunciation
Yonatan hakatan
‫יונתן הקטן‬
‫ רץ בבוקר אל הגן‬Rats baboker el hagan
Hu tipes al ha'ets
‫הוא טיפס על העץ‬
Efrokhim khipes
‫אפרוחים חיפש‬
‫אוי ואבוי לו לשובב‬
‫חור גדול במכנסיו‬
‫הוא טיפס על העץ‬
‫אפרוחים חיפש‬
•

Oi vavoi lo lashovav
Khor gadol
bemihnasav
Hu tipes al ha'ets
Efrokhim khipes

English
Little Jonathan
Ran in the Morning to the park
He climbed up on the tree
Looking for some baby birds
But the mischievous little
child
Tore up his pants
He climbed up on the tree
Looking for some baby birds

Yonatan - a common Hebrew name - its English equivalent is "Jonathan"

A song for the Rain
Hebrew Characters

Pronunciation
‫ גשם משמיים‬,‫ גשם‬Geshem, geshem
mishamaim
‫כל היום טיפות המים‬
Kol hayom tipot hamaim
‫טף‬-‫טיף‬-‫טיף‬
Tif-Tif-Taf
‫טף‬-‫טיף‬-‫טיף‬
Tif-Tif-Taf
‫מחאו כף אל כף‬
Makhau kaf el kaf
•

English
Rain drops, Rain drops from the
sky
All day long the Rain drops
Tif-Tif-Taf*
Tif-Tif-Taf
Clap your hands together

Tif-Tif-Taf - the sound of Rain drops in Hebrew
38

Wikibooks Wikijunior Languages

H indi
.

What writing system(s) does this language use?
Hindi does not use Latin characters like the English you are reading, but instead uses a script called
devanagari. Devanagari is a type of writing system, called an abugida, where the base character is a
syllable that includes a consonant and a vowel. The first consonant in devanagari is क, which stands for
the sound "ka". The character can be changed to use different vowels. For example क कक क क क क
क क क are the k character with each of the main vowels in Hindi. There is also a different form of
the vowels when they appear at the beginning of a word or as the second of a pair of vowels. The basic
vowels are अ आ इ ई उ ऊ ए ऐ ओ and औ.

How many people speak this language?
There are varying estimates for how many people speak Hindi, claimed to be spoken by the second to
fourth most number of people of any language. The number varies depending on whether very closely
related dialects are included or not. Estimates range from 340 million to 500 million speakers, and as
many as 800 million people may understand the language. Hindi is also closely related to the language
Urdu, and speakers of the everyday form of the languages can usually understand each other. There are
60 to 100 million speakers of Urdu.

Where is this language spoken?
Almost all speakers of Hindi live in India or Nepal, though Hindi can be found all over the world where
it's speakers have moved to. Countries outside of India and Nepal with a significant number of speakers
are South Africa, Mauritius, the United Kingdom, the United States, Yemen, and Uganda.

What is the history of this language?
Hindi has its roots in the ancient language of Sanskrit. The spoken language changed over the centuries
from the Old Indo-Aryan such as Sanskrit to Middle Indo-Aryan Prakrit languages. Eventually Middle
Indo-Aryan became what many researchers refer to as Apabhramshas, which sometime around 1000
A.D. were developing into the dialects and languages of today's northern India, including Hindi. Hindi
contains a significant number of words from Persian and Arabic origins, stemming from the Persian
people that ruled much of northern India for centuries.

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Who are some famous authors or poets in this language?
Tulsidas wrote twelve books and is considered the greatest and most famous of Hindi poets. He lived
from 1532 to 1623. Premchand is one of the greatest literary figures of modern Hindi and Urdu
literature. He lived from 1880 to 1936. Most of the early Hindi literature was in verse form, like poetry.

What are some basic words in this language that I can learn?
Hindi word - Latin version of the word - English translation
•
•
•
•
•

नमस - namaste - hello, good morning, afternoon, etc, and goodbye.
आप कस ह? - aap kaise hain? - How are you?
म ठ क ह, और आप? - main Thiik hoon, aur aap? - I am fine, and you?
आपक न म क# ह? - aapka naam kyaa hai? - What is your name?
मर न म सन$ल ह - meraa naam Suniil hai. - My name is Sunil.

The word order in Hindi sentences is different than in English. In Hindi the verb usually comes last in
the sentence. For example in the sentence given above for "What is your name?", the order the words
are actually said in Hindi is "your name what is". Aapka means "your", naam means "name", kyaa
means "what", and hai means "is". With practice, this difference isn't very hard to get used to.

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What is a simple song/poem/story that I can learn in this
language?
मछल$ जल क र न$ ह
In Devanagri
मछल$ जल क र न$ ह,
ज$वन उसक प न$ ह,
ह थ लग ओ

# डर ज एग$,

ब हर ननक ल

# मर ज एग$।

In Latin
Machhli jal ki raani hai,
jeevan uskaa paani hai,
haath lagaao to ye dar jaayegi,
baahar nikaalo to ye mar jaayegi.
Translation
Fish is the queen of water,
Her life is water,
touch her (with your hand) and she will get scared,
take her out and she will die.

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I talian
.

What writing system(s) does this language use?
Italian uses the Latin writing system.

How many people speak this language?
Seventy million people speak Italian as a native language.

Where is this language spoken?
It is spoken in Italy and a little bit in the nations neighbouring to Italy (France, Austria, Croatia,
Slovenia), and it's also widespread: - in the Ticino swiss canton (swiss federal official language with
German,French and Romansh]]; - in the Vatican City (although the official is Latin, used for
celebrations, documents and in bancomat too); - in San Marino (a microstate embedded in the middle
of Italy)
It's one of the many official languages of the European Union, and also preserved by many Italian
immigrant communities in USA, Canada, Argentina, Brazil, Australia, Belgium, France and Germany.
The high number of emigrants coming to Italy from Third World countries since the '90s are showing
usage of italian as a lingua franca .

What is the history of this language?
It is one of the many regional vernaculars of Latin. All these languages split from Latin long ago.

Who are some famous authors or poets in this language?
Carlo Collodi (original name Carlo Lorenzini, "Collodi" is just the name of his mother's birthplace)
who wrote Pinocchio.
Dante Alighieri wrote "The Divine Comedy" (although in archaic Italian), which is composed of three
parts: Inferno, Purgatorio, and Paradiso. The Inferno is about a poet's journey through Hell. It can be a
bit of a scary book, so get your parents or teachers to read it first.

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Wikibooks Wikijunior Languages

What are some basic words in this language that I can learn?
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•

ciao - hello
buon giorno - good morning (in the morning), good afternoon (after midday)
buona sera - good evening
buona notte - good night
buon Natale - happy Christmas
buona Pasqua - happy Easter
buon compleanno - happy birthday
buon appetito - have a good meal
come stai? - how are you?
bene grazie, e tu? - fine thanks, and you?
non molto bene - not so good
sono triste - I'm sad
sono felice - I'm happy
non ti preoccupare - don't worry
stai tranquillo - be quiet
posso aiutarti? - can I help you?
mi piace come balli - I like the way you dance
mi fai diventare matto - you drive me crazy
sbrigati! - hurry up!
non penso proprio - I don't think so
non mi rompere - don't bother me
che succede? - what's up?
mi sto bruciando il cervello - my mind is becoming dry
andiamo a fare una passeggiata - let's go for a walk
non prendermi in giro - don't fool me
arrivederci - goodbye
grazie - thank you
grazie infinite - thank you very much
mi dispiace - I'm sorry
mi dispiace terribilmente - I'm terrible sorry, I'm really sorry
chiedo perdono - I beg your pardon, I apologize
piove a dirotto, piove a catinelle - it's raining cats and dogs
questa è la goccia che fa traboccare il vaso - it's the last straw that broke the camel's back
bella - beautiful (feminine form)
madre- mother
padre - father
zio(a) - uncle/aunt
nonno - grandfather
nonna - grandmother

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Wikibooks Wikijunior Languages

J apanese
.

What writing system(s) does this language use?
Japanese uses three different writing systems: hiragana, katakana, and kanji. Hiragana and katakana
are read phonetically; each symbol represents a specific syllable. Hiragana is used for Japanese words,
while katakana is used for foreign words of foreign origin that were integrated into the Japanese
language.
Kanji are pictograms, with each character having a specific meaning, like in Chinese. In fact, Many
Japanese kanji characters have the same meaning as, and are either identical or similar in appearance,
to the Chinese characters. The Japanese government has designated almost 2000 kanji for standard use;
high school students in Japan must know all of the standard characters before they graduate.
Romaji is the system used to write Japanese words using the Roman alphabet, like the words on this
page (hiragana, katakana, kanji, romaji), and is used to help English-speaking Japanese learners learn
how to read and pronounce Japanese.

How many people speak this language?
The Japanese language has 127 million native speakers, plus 1 million other speakers.

Where is this language spoken?
Japanese is primarily spoken in Japan, but is also spoken in Hawaii and other parts of the United States
(mostly along the Pacific Ocean); Peru; and many Pacific islands.

What is the history of this language?
At first glance, it would be easy to think that Japanese is closely related to Chinese. The kanji
characters were all adopted from Chinese, and the kana (hiragana and katakana) were developed from
the kanji. However, Japanese is actually a very different language from Chinese. Before the 5th
century, Japanese had no written form, but because of contact with the culture of China, Japan adapted
the writing system of Chinese to the Japanese language.
The origins of the Japanese language itself are lost to history. Some people believe that it's related to
Korean, but this is uncertain. Perhaps one day more information on the history of this language will be
discovered.

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Who are some famous authors or poets in this language?
Murasaki Shikibu (c.973-c.1014), authored The Tale of Genji, one of the earliest novels in the world.
Miyamoto Musashi (c.1584-1645), a samurai who wrote The Book of Five Rings.
Matsuo Bashō (c.1644-1694), a master of the poetry form of haiku.
Kyokutei Bakin (1767-1848), the author of Nansō satomi hakkenden or The Legend of the Eight Dog
Warriors.
Shusaku Endo (1923-1996) was a writer whose inspiration and motivation came from being a Japanese
Catholic.
Koji Suzuki (b. 1957) is a writer of horror novels and short stories. Many of these have been translated
into other languages, including his most famous work, Ring. Many of his books have been made into
films in many languages, including English, Japanese and Korean.

What are some basic words in this language that I can learn?
Basic Greetings:
•

おはようございます! - Ohayō gozaimasu! - "Good morning!"

•

こんにちは! - Konnichiwa! - "Good afternoon!"

•

さよなら! - Sayonara! - "Good bye!"

•

また 明日! - Mata ashita! - "See you tomorrow!"

Simple Words:
•

はい - Hai - "Yes"

•

いいえ - Iie - "No"

•

猫 - Neko - "Cat"

•

犬 - Inu - "Dog"

•

日本 - Nihon - "Japan"

•

日本語 - Nihongo - "Japanese language"

Numbers:
1. 一 - Ichi
2. 二 - Ni
3. 三 - San
4. 四 - Shi (yon)
5. 五 - Go
6. 六 - Roku
7. 七 - Nana (shichi)
8. 八 - Hachi
9. 九 - Kyū (ku)
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Wikibooks Wikijunior Languages
10.十 - Jū
Courtesies:
•

すみません - Sumimasen - "Excuse me."

•

ありがとうございます - Arigatō gozaimasu - "Thank you."

•

ごめんなさい - Gomen nasai - "I'm sorry."

•

大丈夫ですか? - Daijōbu desuka - "Are you okay?"

What is a simple song/poem/story that I can learn in this
language?
さくら

さくら

さくら

さくら

野山も里も
見わたすかぎり
かすみか雲か
朝日ににおう
さくら

さくら

花ざかり
さくら

さくら

やよいの空は
見わたすかぎり
かすみか雲か
においぞいずる
いざや

いざや

見にゆかん

さくら

さくら

さくら

さくら

のやま

も

さくら

さくら

やよい

の

Sakura, Sakura

さと

も Sakura sakura
みわたす かぎり
Noyama mo sato
かすみ か くも か mo
Miwatasu kagiri
あさひ に におう
Kasumi ka kumo ka
さくら さくら
Asahi ni niou
Sakura sakura
はな ざかり
Hana zakari
Sakura sakura
わ Yayoi no sora wa
Miwatasu kagiri
みわたす かぎり
Kasumi ka kumo ka
かすみ か くも か Nioi zo izuru
におい ぞ いする
Izaya izaya
Mini yu kan
いざや いざや
みに

ゆ

そら

かん

Cherry Blossom
Cherry blossoms, cherry
blossoms,
On mountains and in villages,
As far as you can see.
They look like a mist, or clouds,
Fragrant in the morning sun.
Cherry blossoms, cherry
blossoms,
They’re in full bloom.
Cherry blossoms, cherry
blossoms,
Across the April skies,
As far as you can see.
They look like a mist, or clouds,
Blooming fragrantly.
Let's go! Let's go!
Let's go see them!

You can hear the tune at http://www.isc.toyama-u.ac.jp/~hamada/song/sakura/sakura_e.html

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Wikibooks Wikijunior Languages

K annada
.

What writing system(s) does this language use?
The Kannada script is an abugida of the Brahmic family, primarily to write the Kannada language, one
of the Dravidian languages in India. It is also used for Konkani, Tulu and Kodava languages.

How many people speak this language?
Approximately sixty million people speak Kannada mainly in the state of Karnataka in South India.
People in other Indian states and mainly in western countries form a small percentage of Kannada
speaking population.

Where is this language spoken?
Kannada is spoken in the Karnataka state of India. Kannada is also the official language of the state and
is considered as one of the eighteen official languages of India.

What is the history of this language?
Kannada is the third oldest language of India after Sanskrit and Tamil. It has a verbal history of over
2,000 years and Kannada words could be identified in Emperor Ashoka's edicts. Kannada become a
literary language in the 6th century. The oldest inscriptions of Kannada language can be found in the
"Halmidi Shaasana" in the 7th century. The oldest literary epic in Kannada "Kavirajamarga" which
follows the Sanskrit tradition of Poetics. Pampa is the best known of the earliest poets whose
"Adipurana" and "Vikramaarjunavijayam" form the brightest jewels in the Kannada literary history.

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Wikibooks Wikijunior Languages

Who are some famous authors or poets in this language?
"Kavirajamarga" - a treatise on poetics and language was the first literary work. Though there has
been much debate over the author, academics all over common term the author as
"kavirajamargakaara". Pampa, Ranna and Ponna formed the "Ratnatraya" meaning the "Jewel
trinity" of early Kannada literature. The Vachana saahithya then formed the biggest milestone in
kannada literature with Bhakti traditionists like Basavanna, Akkamahadevi, Allamaprabhu, Jedara
Dasimayya etc. This also laid the cornerstone for the Veerashaiva movement in Karnataka ending in a
huge social upheaval and a wateshed in the demographics of the region. Some of the Shaivaite poets of
recognition have been Harihara and Raghavanka. Kumaravyaasa and Lakshmeesha wrote
Mahabhaaratha's that complied with the ethos of the Kannada language and culture. The Dasa
saahithya propounded by Purandara Dasa, Kanakadasa and other monks of the Dwaita tradition also
formed a watershed in kannada literature.
A long slump in any significant contribution to literature was broken by the Navodaya literature in the
turn of the century by greats like B.M.Srikantaiah, T.S.Venkanaiah, D.V.Gundappa, Kuvempu,
D.R.Bendre, Pu.Ti.Narasimhachar. Great works like "RamayanaDarshanam" and
"MankutimmanaKagga" reclaimed the Kannada ethos and upheld the uniqueness of the Kannada
psyche. Following on the heals of Navodaya, the Navya tradition rebelled against the traditionalists and
formed a new path. The proponents of this path were Gopalakrishna Adiga, V.K.Gokak,
U.R.Ananthamurthy etc. Further, Dalit and Bandaya saahithya enriched the varied range of kannada
litearture with authors like Devanuru Mahadeva and Siddalingaiah.
Other notable laureates of the century were Shivaram Karanth, Shreeranga, Niranjana,
A.Na.Krishnarao, P.Lankesh, Girish Karnad.
Kannada literature's richness has been emphasized by the fact that till recently it had the unique
distinction of having received seven Jnanapeetha awards.

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K orean
.

What writing system(s) does this language use?
The one thing that greatly differentiates the Korean language from other far eastern languages such as
Chinese and Japanese is the use of the Hangeul (pronounced han-guhl) alphabet. While Chinese uses
singular characters to represent each word, and Japanese relies on a mix of two syllabaries (each
character of the alphabet representing a syllable rather than a single sound) and simplified Chinese
characters, the Hangeul alphabet uses actual letters, each one with its distinct sound, that are arranged
together in a unique way to form the Korean words.
The Hangeul alphabet has also the distinction of being the only alphabet in daily use by a large
population in the world that is completely purpose-made. The alphabet was invented in 1444 and put to
use in 1446 during the reign of King Sejong (1418 - 1450). King Sejong is one of the most highly
regarded kings of the old Joseon Dynasty. He was the fourth Joseon king.
The name of the Hangeul alphabet was hunmin jeongeum at the time of its creation. Hunmin jeongeum
means "the correct sounds for the instruction of the people". Other names used to describe the Hangeul
alphabet were eonmeun (vulgar script) and gukmeun (country script).

How many people speak this language?
There are around 71 million Korean speakers around the world; making it the 13th most spoken
language in the world.

Where is this language spoken?
Korean is spoken primarily in North and South Korean as well as in the north eastern parts of China
and in Japan. However, there are large Korean speaking communities in many major cities around the
world.

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Wikibooks Wikijunior Languages

What are some basic words in this language that I can learn?
Language Constitution
There are 14 primitive consonants and 10 vowels in Korean.
•

14 consonants ㄱ ㄴ ㄷ ㄹ ㅁ ㅂ ㅅ ㅇ ㅈ ㅊ ㅋ ㅌ ㅍ ㅎ

•

10 vowels ㅏ ㅑ ㅓ ㅕ ㅗ ㅛ ㅜ ㅠ ㅡ ㅣ

Basic Expression
•

안녕하세요?(an nyong ha se yo) - "Hello?"

•

고맙습니다(go mab soom ni da) - "Thank you"

•

미안합니다(mi an hab ni da) - "I am sorry"

•

사랑해요(sa rang hae yo) - "I love you"

Word
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사람 (sa ram) - person

•

남자 (nam ja) - man

•

여자 (yeo ja) - woman

•

사과 (sa gwa) - apple

•

닭 (dak) - chicken

•

말 (mal) - horse

•

감자 (gam ja) - potato

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Wikibooks Wikijunior Languages

L atin
.

What writing system(s) does this language use?
Latin uses what is today called the Latin Alphabet. This alphabet is thought by many historians to
have been a modified version of the ancient Greek alphabet, which in turn is also a variation of ancient
Phoenician writing.
The Latin alphabet is the basis for most European languages and for many other languages around the
world, which is why it may look familiar to you if you are reading this in English.
One important difference is that lowercase letters were not usually used in writing classical Latin.

How many people speak this language?
The Latin language is considered extinct, which means no one uses it as everyday language. Still, there
are people who know Latin. Some of which are ancient history scholars, who need Latin to read ancient
text. Also, linguists (language scholars) who study Romance languages (French, Spanish, Romanian)
need to know Latin, because those languages are in fact based on Latin, so one cannot understand their
history without knowing Latin.

Where is this language spoken?
The Vatican City has Latin as its
official language, even though the
language is extinct. Two thousand
years ago, Latin was spoken
throughout the Roman Empire, which
extended at its height from Portugal to
Iraq and from Britain to North Africa.
During the Middle Ages and the early
modern era, Latin was the predominant
language of the Church and of
Universities in western Europe. Many
Latin words and phrases are still used
in the fields of law, science and
medicine.
Green shows where the Latin Alphabet is used today.

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Wikibooks Wikijunior Languages

What is the history of this language?
Latin is a member of the family of Italic languages, and its alphabet, the Latin alphabet, is based on the
Old Italic alphabet, which is in turn derived from the Greek alphabet. Latin was first brought to the
Italian peninsula in the 9th or 8th century B.C. by migrants from the north, who settled in the Latium
region, specifically around the River Tiber, where the Roman civilization first developed. Latin was
influenced by the Celtic dialects and the non-Indo-European Etruscan language in northern Italy, and
by Greek in southern Italy.
Although surviving Latin literature consists almost entirely of Classical Latin, an artificial, highly
stylized and polished literary language from the 1st century B.C., the actual spoken language of the
Roman Empire was Vulgar Latin, which significantly differed from Classical Latin in grammar,
vocabulary, and eventually pronunciation. Although Latin remained the main written language of the
Roman Empire, Greek came to be the language spoken by the well-educated elite, as most of the
literature studied by Romans was written in Greek. In the eastern half of the Roman Empire, which
became the Byzantine Empire, Greek eventually supplanted Latin as both the written and spoken
language.

Who are some famous authors or poets in this
language?
•

•
•
•
•

•

Julius Caesar - A famous military general who later went on to be the
first emperor of Rome. He wrote down accounts of all of his battles in the
Gallic Wars.
Suetonius - A historian who is probably most famous for his biographies
The Twelve Caesars, the first twelve rulers of the Roman Empire
Virgil - A poet who wrote the Aeneid, a book on the founding of the city
of Rome (based partly on legend).
Cicero - Probably the best Roman orator, well-known for his work in
politics and law.
Livy - An author of Ab Urbe Condita, a history of Rome as a city. His
writings are very convoluted - most of his sentences and phrases have
some sort of subordination to them.
Catullus - A poet who writes about and to his friends, about his
girlfriend, to insult others, or to give condolences.
Julius Caesar

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What are some basic words in this language that I can learn?
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•

Salve - Hello or Goodbye
Veni, Vidi, Vici - I came, I saw, I conquered
Magnum Opus - Master Work
Per Ardua, ad Astra - Through hard work, to the stars
Examplia Gratia ( In English today we say e.g) - For the sake of an example, an example
Nota Bene - Note well
Te amo - I love you
Et - and
Tu - You

What is a simple song/poem/story that I can learn in this
language?
In Latin:
Si qui forte mearum ineptiarum lectores eritis manusque vestras non horrebitis admovere nobis.
Translation:
If you, who are brave, will be readers of my foolishness, then your hands will not tremble as they reach
towards my poems.

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M arathi
.

What writing system(s) does this language use?
Marathi uses the devanagri writing system, which is used in other languages such as Hindi and
Sanskrit. Traditionally, the Modi script was used, but it was very difficult to use for printing and
therefore the devanagri script was adopted and is now the standard writing system for Marathi.

How many people speak this language?
Approximately ninety million people speak Marathi all over the world.

Where is this language spoken?
Marathi is spoken in the Maharashtra state of India. Marathi is also the official language of the state
and is considered as one of the eighteen official languages of India. Now, Marathi is also spoken in
Maharashtrian communities all over the world.

What is the history of this language?
Marathi was formed as a combination of Sanskrit, Persian and Arabic, with more influence from
Sanskrit. The exact origin of the language is unknown, though records date back to the eighth century,
in this language. It is clear that Marathi became extensively used in the thirteenth century onwards.

Who are some famous authors or poets in this language?
Many books have been written in Marathi, on various topics. Tukaram, a Maharashtrian Saint, wrote
abhangas, or small poems that discouraged evil practices. Other famous authors include Hari Apte,
Vishnu Khandekar, Balchandra Nemade, P.L. Deshpande, Tarabai Shinde, V.V. Shirwadkar, and
Narendra Jadhav.

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What are some basic words in this language that I can learn?
Marathi word - Latin version of the word - English translation
•
•
•
•
•

नमसक र - namaskaar - hello, good morning, afternoon, etc, and goodbye.
मह0 कश आह ? - tumhi kashe aahaat? - How are you?
म$ ठ क आह, आण3 मह0? - mee teek aahe, aani tumhi? - I am fine, and you?
मच न व क # आह? - tumcha naav kaay aahe? - What is your name?
म झ न व र हल आह. - maazha naav Rahul aahe. - My name is Rahul.

The word order in Marathi sentences is different than in English. In Marathi the verb usually comes last
in the sentence. For example in the sentence given above for "What is your name?", the order the words
are actually said in Marathi is "your name what is". "tumcha" means your, "naav" means name, "kaay"
means what, and "aahe" means is.

Colours
Marathi Word - Latin Version - English Translation
•
•
•
•
•
•
•

प 6ढर - paandhraa - White
क ळ - kaalaa - Black
पपवळ - pivlaa - Yellow
कहरव - hirvaa - Green
ननळ - nilaa - Blue
ल ल - laal - Red
ज 6बळ - jaamblaa - Violet/Purple

Numbers
English Number. Marathi Number (Latin Version)
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•

1. एक (ek)
2. द न (don)
3. $न (teen)
4. च र (chaar)
5. प च (paach)
6. सह (sahaa)
7. स (saat)
8. आठ (aath)
9. 3 (nou)
10. दह (dahaa)

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What is a simple song/poem/story that I can learn in this
language?
#र #र प वस
In Devanagri
#र #र प वस , ल द पस
पस झ ल ख ट प ऊस आल म ठ
# ग # ग सर0 म झ मडक भर0
सर आल$ ध उन
मडक गल व हन
In Latin
Yere yere pavsa, tula deto paisa
paisa zhala khota, paoos ala motha
ye ga ye ga saree, majhe madke bhari
sar ali dhaoon
madki gali wahoon
Translation
Rain rain, come here, i'll give you a paisa
the paisa became fake, the rain came with a rage,
Stream Stream, come here, fill my pots for me
the stream came running,
my pots were washed away.

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P ortuguese
.

What writing system(s) does this language use?
The Portuguese language uses the Latin (Western) alphabet without the letters k, w and y.

How many people speak this language?
More than two hundred million people speak Portuguese as native language. It is the 6th most-spoken
language of the world and the 3rd most-spoken of the western world. It is one of the official languages
of European Union and Mercosul.

Where is this language spoken?
Since 1450, the Portuguese language has been
assimilated in lands discovered by the coast of
Africa, India, China, Japan, and many islands of
Oceania. In some of these countries, Portuguese
words, music and even Portuguese creoles are still
used, like in India: Goa, Damão, Diu e Dadra e
Nagar Haveli. There are many Portuguese-speaking
communities in the world, and as such, it is an
important minority language in Andorra, Luxembourg, Namibia, Switzerland, and South Africa. It is
also spoken in many cities of the world, including Paris (France), Toronto, Hamilton, Montreal,
Gatineau (Canada), Boston, New Jersey and Miami (United States).

What is the history of this language?
It is one of the many regional vernaculars of Latin (Ibero-Roman group). All of these languages split
from Latin long ago. It also contains influences from the Roman Empire invaders: vandals, celts and
visigodes. Together with Gallic (northwestern Spain) comes the Gallic-Portuguese language, formed in
the Middle Ages. Portuguese also includes influences from Arabic invaders from northern Africa, in
the Reconquest, and by the natives of the countries that have been discovered and colonized.

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Who are some famous authors or poets in this language?
•
•
•
•
•

Luís de Camões (Portuguese, b. c. 1524 - d. June 10, 1580): considered by some the greatest
poet of both the Portuguese language and of mankind.
Machado de Assis (Brazilian, b. Rio de Janeiro, June 21, 1839 — d. Rio de Janeiro, September
29, 1908): widely regarded as the most important writer of Brazilian literature.
Fernando Pessoa (Portuguese, b. Lisbon, June 13, 1888 — d. Lisbon, November 30, 1935):
another great Portuguese poet.
José Saramago (Portuguese, b. November 16, 1922) Awarded Nobel Prize for Literature in
1998.
Paulo Coelho (Brazilian, b. August 24, 1947)

What are some basic words in this language that I can learn?
Respostas

Responses

Sim
Não
Talvez
Olá
Oi! Como vai?
Bom dia
Boa tarde
Boa noite
Que há de novo?
Não muito.
Adeus.
Até amanhã.
Poderia dizer-me onde posso encontrar um banheiro (or
WC)?
Quanto custa?
Quero um copo de leite.
Gosto de você.
Te Amo.

58

Yes
No
Maybe
Hello
Hi! How are you?
Good morning
Good afternoon
Good night
What's up?
Not much.
Good-bye.
See you tomorrow.
Could you tell me where the bathroom
is?
How much does it cost?
I want a glass of milk.
I like you.
I love you.

Wikibooks Wikijunior Languages

What is a simple song/poem/story that I can learn in this
language?
"Cai,Cai, Balão"
Cai,Cai, Balão;
Cai,Cai, Balão;
Aqui na minha mão.;
Não cai, não;
Não cai, não;
Não cai, não;
Cai na rua do João.
in English....
"Fall, Fall, Balloon"
Fall, Fall, Balloon;
Fall, Fall, Balloon;
right here in my hand.
Please don't fall;
Please don't fall;
Please don't fall;
Fall on John's street.

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R ussian
.

What writing system(s) does this language use?
The Russian alphabet is based on the Cyrillic writing system. Legend says that two Byzantine brothers,
Cyril and Methodius, created it using letters of the Greek and Hebrew alphabets in the 9th century.
Cyrillic script has changed much with time, even more than the Latin script we use. Actually, modern
Russians are not able to read a three-hundred-year-old book in Russian. This is not only because the
language has changed, but also because they are not able to recognize many letters. The last big change
of Russian script happened in 1918, and the alphabet has remained the same since.
There are a total of thirty-three letters in the modern Russian alphabet, which are:

How many people speak this language?
Russian is the native language for about 145 million people. There are also about 110 million who
speak it as a secondary language (that means that they have learned it).

Where is this language spoken?

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Wikibooks Wikijunior Languages
Russian is, of course, spoken in Russia. It is widely spoken in Belarus and eastern Ukraine. It is also
used in the lands of the former Soviet Union for communication between people who speak different
languages (like English in other parts of the world).
Russian is also spoken by the communities of Russian emigrants in the U.S.A., Germany and many
other countries.
emigrant - someone who have left the land where he was born and moved to another
country

What is the history of this language?
The Russian language belongs to the group of languages that are called Slavic. These languages have
many commonalities, some of which are similar word roots and similar grammar. It is for this reason
why scientists think that all Slavic languages originated from one Protoslavic language, that people
spoke a long time ago (before 1000 A.D.) As time passed, the language spread, and people in different
countries began to speak it differently. It is considered that Russian became a separate language in 14th
– 15th centuries, when Russia was freed from Mongol invasion.
As Russia changed with time, so did the language. Major events in Russian history brought new
features to language and literature. Aleksandr Sergeevich Pushkin is considered the "father" of
modern literary language. Though Russian language is very flexible and ever-changing, Pushkin’s
language stays the base and the standard of classic style.

Who are some famous authors or poets in this language?
Russian literature is well known in the West. Possibly you've heard the names of Tolstoy, Dostoevsky,
Nabokov, Brodsky. But not many people know that there are lots of wonderful children’s books in
Russia.
Aleksandr Sergeevich Pushkin (1799 - 1837) is one of the greatest
Russian poets. He wrote books both for grown ups and for children.
When he was a child, his nanny, Arina Rodionovna, told him many
beautiful folk fairy tales. When he grew up, he wrote down these fairy
tales in poem form. The plot of The Tale of the Dead Princess and the
Seven Knights reminds one of the Snow White story. In The Tale of
Tsar Saltan, when the tsar chooses one of three sisters to be his queen,
the others get jealous and tell lies about her. The queen and her son are
sent to a faraway island, where a fairy princess helps the young prince
to reunite with his father. These books became classics of Russian
Children’s literature, and every child in Russia knows them by heart,
just like you know Mother Goose rhymes.

Aleksandr Sergeevich Pushkin

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Lev Nikolaevich Tolstoy (1828 - 1910), the author of War and Peace, is probably the most wellknown Russian writer in the West. He wrote books for children too. He was very compassionate
towards peasant people, and tried to help them as much as he could. He opened a school for peasant
children and wrote the textbooks for it himself. He also wrote three very beautiful books about his own
young years: Childhood, Boyhood and Youth.
A lot of interesting children’s books were written in Russian in the 20th century. Korney Ivanovich
Chukovsky wrote fairy tales about Bad Robber Barmaley and Kind Doctor Aibolit, Moidodyr who
makes all kids wash up in the morning, and evil Tarakanishe (the Huge Roach) that terrorizes all the
animals in the forest. Samuil Yakovlevich Marshak wrote Tale of a Silly Mouseling and Cat’s house.
Nikolai Nosov wrote a series of books about the adventures of Neznaika (Dontknow) and his friends,
living in the happy Flower city.

What are some basic words in this language that I can learn?
(try to speak ye out as one sound.)
•
•
•
•
•
•

Привет (Privyet) - Hello (informal)
Здравствуйте (Zdrasvuytye) - Hello (formal)
Как дела? (Kak dyela?) - How are you?
Меня зовут... (Minya zavut) - My name is...
Давай дружить! (Davay druzhit!) - Let's become friends!
До свидания! (Do Svidaniya) - Goodbye!

What is a simple song/poem/story that I can learn in this
language?
Try to learn this little poem by Agnia Barto:
Уронили мишку на пол,
Оторвали мишке лапу.
Всё равно его не брошу —
Потому что он хороший.
It sounds like that:
Ooronili mishkoo na pol,
Otorvali mishke lapoo,
Vsyo ravno evo nye broshoo —
Pahtomoo shto on horoshiy.
And that means:
Teddy bear was dropped on the floor,
Teddy bear's paw got torn off.
But I will never leave him —
Because he is good.

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S anskrit
.

What writing system(s) does this language use?
Sanskrit is written in the Devanagri script, one of the oldest writing systems in the world. Some
languages, such as Hindi and Marathi are also written in Devanagri, but Sanskrit is the first language to
use this writing system. Originally Sanskrit was not a written language, and when it started being
written, a number of different scripts were used initially, until Devanagari became the standard.

How many people speak this language?
A little more than two hundred thousand people in the World can speak Sanskrit very well. Sanskrit is
an old language and is mostly used by priests and scholars of old texts including many religious ones.
Many people know a little Sanskrit because of the importance it has to other Indian languages and the
Hindu religion.

Where is this language spoken?
Sanskrit was used widely in ancient times, but nowadays, there are very few areas in the World where
this language is spoken. It was invented in India and some communities in India still speak in Sanskrit.
Many Asian Buddhists can also speak Sanskrit. It is found in Hindu holy writings and hymns. It is
known to be used regularly in some areas in South India, though.

What is the history of this language?
Sanskrit is an ancient language and is comparable to the Latin language spoken in Europe. Sanskrit is a
very complex and rich language, which has served to be the source for many modern Indian languages,
just like Latin is the source for European languages like French and Spanish.
Sanskrit was considered a high-level language and was spoken by officials, kings, noble men etc. It
was difficult for the common man to comprehend Sanskrit. Sanskrit eventually became almost extinct,
but it was kept alive by holy men, scholars and Buddhists.

Who are some famous authors or poets in this language?
Many ancient writers such as Sage Vyaas, Chanakya etc. used Sanskrit for their writings. It is a rich
language and the writers gained fame for enriching it further. The great Hindu epics, Ramayana and
Mahabharata are also written in Sanskrit, as are the Vedas, Upanishads and Subhashitratnani.
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What are some basic words in this language that I can learn?
Numbers
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•

एक - eka - One
द0 - dvi - Two
त$ - tri - Three
च र - chatura - Four
प 6च - paancha - Five
षष - shasha - six
सप - sapta - seven
अष - ashta - eight
नव - nava - Nine
दस - dasa - ten
एक I दस - ekadasa - Eleven

What is a simple song/poem/story that I can learn in this
language?
Sanskrit
कमDण#व नधक रस म फलष कदचन।
म कमDफलह भDम D
सङग सHवकमDण3॥
-श$मदगवद0

(२:४७)

Latin pronounciation
karmany evadhikaras te ma phaleshu kadachana
ma karma-phala-hetur bhur ma te sango 'stv akarmani
-Shri Bhagvatgita (Chapter 2 verse 47)
English Word Meanings
karmani--prescribed duties; eva--certainly; adhikarah--right; te--of you; ma--never; phaleshu--in the
fruits; kadachana--at any time; ma--never; karma-phala--in the result of the work; hetuh--cause; bhuh-become; ma--never; te--of you; sangah--attachment; astu--be there; akarmani--in not doing.
English Translation
Your right is to work only,
But never to its fruits;
Let not the fruits of action be thy motive,
Nor let thy attachment be to inaction.
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S panish
.

What writing system(s) does this language use?
Spanish is written using the Latin alphabet, with the addition of ñ (enye). Ch (che, pronounced [tş]) and
ll (eye) also used to have their own places in the alphabet (a, b, c, ch, d, …, l, ll, m, n, ñ, …) as well as
rr (erre, the double r indicating a rolled r). Since 1994, however, words containing the letters ch and ll
have been alphabetized as though spelled with the separate letters c - h and l - l.

How many people speak this language?
There are over 400 million people across the globe who speak Spanish as their first language. When
you include non-native speakers (people who learned another language before they learned Spanish),
the total increases to about 500 million.

Where is this language spoken?
This language is spoken in Central and South America (except Brazil, Guyana, French Guyana and
Suriname), Mexico and Spain. Large numbers of Spanish-speaking peoples live in the United States as
well.

What is the history of this language?
Spanish is a member of the Romance branch of Indo-European languages, descended largely from
Latin.

Who are some famous authors or poets in this language?
Miguel de Cervantes Saavedra was a Spanish novelist, poet and playwright. He is best known for his
novel Don Quixote de la Mancha, which is considered by many to be the first modern novel, one of the
greatest works in Western literature, and the greatest of the Spanish language.

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What are some basic words in this language that I can learn?
Respuestas

Responses

Sí
No
Tal vez, quizás

Yes
No
Maybe
Saludos

Greetings

Hola
Buenos días
Buenas tardes
Buenas noches
¿Qué hay de nuevo?
No mucho.

Hello
Good morning
Good afternoon
Good night
What's up?
Not much.
Despedidas
Good-byes
Adiós.
Good-bye.
Chao (Chau).
Bye.
Nos vemos mañana.
See you tomorrow.
Hablamos (translated 'Nos mantendremos en contacto'). Keep in touch.
Te veo pronto.
See you soon.
Frases útiles
Useful phrases
¿Podría decirme dónde puedo encontrar un baño?
Could you tell me where the bathroom
(polite)
is?
¿Dónde hay un baño?
Where is the bathroom?.
¿Cuánto cuesta?
How much does it costs?.
Quiero una leche.
I want a milk.
Me gustas tú.
I like you.
Te quiero.
lit. "I want you" I love you
Mi perro se comió mi tarea.
My dog ate my homework.

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What is a simple song/poem/story that I can learn in this
language?
Hola, amigos como están?
Hola, amiguitos como están?
(Spanish)
Hola, amigos como están?
Hola, amigos como están?
Hoy vamos a jugar
luego vamos a cantar
y entonces nosotros podemos salir a
casa.

Hello, How Are You My Friends?
(English)
Hello, how are you my friends?
Hello, how are you my friends?
Today we are going to play
then we are going to sing
and then we can go home..

Estrellita
Estrellita

Twinkle, Twinkle, Little Star Twinkle, Twinkle, Little Star

(Spanish)
Estrellita, donde estás?
Me pregunto que serás.
En el cielo y en el mar,
Un diamante de verdad.
Estrellita, donde estás?
Me pregunto que serás....

(English)
Twinkle, twinkle, little star,
How I wonder what you are.
Up above the world so high,
Like a diamond in the sky.
Twinkle, twinkle, little star,
How I wonder what you are!

(Literal English)
Where are you, little star,
How I wonder what you are.
In the sky and in the sea,
Truly like a diamond.
Where are you, little star,
How I wonder what you are!

La Pequeňita Araňa
The Itsy Bitsy Spider

The Cute Little Spider

La Pequeňita Araňa
(English)
(Literal English)
(Spanish)
The itsy bitsy spider climbed up The cute little spider climbed up,
La pequeňita araňa subió, the water spout.
climbed up, climbed up.
subió, subió.
Down came the rain and washed Down came the ran and she was carried
Bajó la lluvia, y se la llevó. the spider out.
away.
Salió el sol, y todo secó,
Out came the sun and dried up Out came the sun and it dried
Y la pequeňita araňa subió, all the rain,
everything,
subió, subió.
And the itsy bitsy spider went And the cute little spider climbed up,
up the spout again.
climbed up, climbed up.

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Un elefante
Un elefante

One Elephant

(Spanish)
Un elefante
Se columpiaba
Sobre la tela d'un araňa.
Como veía
que resistía,
Fue a llamar otro elefante.

(English)
One elephant,
Was swinging,
On a spider web.
Since he saw,
That it held him,
He went to call another elephant.

Dos elefantes
Se columpiaban
Sobre la tela d'un araňa.
Como veían
que resistía,
Fueron a llamar otro
elefante.

Two elephants,
Were swinging,
On a spider web.
Since they saw,
That it held them,
They went to call another
elephant.

Tres elefantes...
(Y asi...)

Three elephants...
(And so on...)

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Swedish
.

.

.

.

.

.

What writing system(s) does this language use?
The Swedish alphabet is a twenty-nine letter alphabet, the standard Latin alphabet plus three additional
letters which are Å / å, Ä / ä, and Ö / ö. These letters are sorted in that order after z.

How many people speak this language?
Swedish is spoken by 9,300,000 people

Where is this language spoken?
Swedish is spoken primarily in:
•
•

Sweden
Finland

As a minority language in:
•

Estonia

What is the history of this language?
In the 9th century, Old Norse began to diverge into Old West Norse (Norway and Iceland) and Old
East Norse (Sweden and Denmark). In the 12th century, the dialects of Denmark and Sweden began to
diverge, becoming Old Danish and Old Swedish in the 13th century. All were heavily influenced by
Middle Low German during the medieval period. Though stages of language development are never as
sharply delimited as implied here, and should not be taken too literally, the system of subdivisions used
in this article is the most commonly used by Swedish linguists and is used for the sake of practicality.

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Who are some famous authors or poets in this
language?
Probably the best known Swedish childrens' book is Pippi Longstocking (Pippi
Långstrump in Swedish) by Astrid Lindgren. This book was translated in 70
languages! Astrid Lindgren also wrote Karlsson-on-the-Roof, Mio, my Mio and
many other interesting stories for children.
Karlsson-on-the-Roof
Tove Jansson was from Finland, but she wrote books in Swedish. She created a series of childrens'
books about Moomins, funny creatures that a bit look like hippos. The family of Moomis live in their
house in Moominvalley, though in the past their residences have included a lighthouse and a theatre.

What are some basic words in this language that I can learn?
Swedish
Hej
Goddag
Godnatt
Hej då
Mat
Äta
Sova
Bok
Läsa
Studera
Gå
Springa
Hoppa

English
Hi
Good day
Good night
Bye
Food
Eat
Sleep
Book
Read
Study
Walk
Run
Jump

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What is a simple song/poem/story that I can learn in this
language?
In Swedish:
Du gamla, Du fria, Du fjällhöga nord
Du tysta, Du glädjerika sköna!
Jag hälsar Dig, vänaste land uppå jord,
Din sol, Din himmel, Dina ängder gröna.
Du tronar på minnen från fornstora dar,
då ärat Ditt namn flög över jorden.
Jag vet att Du är och förblir vad du var.
Ja, jag vill leva jag vill dö i Norden.
In English:
Thou ancient, thou free, thou mountainous North.
In beauty and peace our hearts beguiling.
I greet thee, thou loveliest land on the earth.
Thy sun, thy skies, thy meadows green.
Thy rest on the memories of the great days of yore.
When all round the world thine name honoured was.
I know that you are and you will be as you were.
Oh, I would live and I would die in the North.

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U rdu
.

What writing system(s) does this language use?
Urdu does not use Latin characters. It is written in the Perso-Arabic Script, and has many alphabets
common with Arabic and Persian. It is written from right to left.

How many people speak this language?
There are an estimated 150 to 200 million speakers of Urdu around the world.It is also closely related
to the language Hindi, and speakers of the everyday form of the languages can usually understand each
other.

Where is this language spoken?
Urdu is widely spoken in Pakistan and India, though it also has large number of speakers in the Middle
East, United Kingdom, and North America.

What is the history of this language?
Urdu evolved in the Indian subcontinent from various local dialects such as Prakrit and Brij Bhasha
with outside influences from Arabic, Persian and Turkish languages.

Who are some famous authors or poets in this language?
Urdu is rich in both prose and poetry. Most famous poets of Urdu are Allama Muhammad Iqbal, Mirza
Ghalib, Mir Taqi Mir, and Faiz Ahmed Faiz.

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What are some basic words in this language that I can learn?
Urdu word
‫آداب‬
‫شکریہ‬
‫برائے مہربانی‬
‫معاف کیجئے‬
‫شب بخیر‬
‫آپ کیسے ہیں؟‬
‫میں بخیر ہوں‬
‫آپ کا نام کیا ہے؟‬
‫میرا نام صائمہ ہے‬

Latin version
Aadab
Shukriya
baraey meherbani
maaf keejiye
shab Bakhair
aap kaise haiN?
main bakhair hooN
aapka naam kyaa hai?
meraa naam Saima
hai

English translation
Greetings!
Thank you.
Please
Sorry
Good Night
How are you?
I am fine.
What is your name?
My name is Saima.

What is a simple song/poem/story that I can learn in this
language?
In Urdu
‫ میں اکیل ہی چل تھا جانب منزل مگر‬.
‫لوگ ساتھ آتے گئے اور کارواں بنتا گیا‬
Latin Version
maiN akela hi chala tha jaanib-e-manzil magar
log saath aate gaye aur kaaravaaN bantaa gayaa
Translation
I had started all alone, towards the destin