메인 The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Literary Terms
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Awsome . Love to read it again n again. Full of knowledge. Find each n every term here.
10 December 2018 (22:32)
Interesting but for some reason, does not include the words "chora," "genotext," and "phenotext" from Kristeva's Revolution on Poetic Language (1974). It's integral in understanding body politics and I am disappointed that it has been overlooked.
31 March 2019 (01:54)
Helped me a lot.
Helped me a lot.
02 August 2020 (20:25)
Very useful. Congratulations! Thanks a lot.
07 October 2020 (10:54)
The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Literary Terms CHRIS BALDICK OXFORD UNIVERSITY PRESS OXFORD PAPERBACK REFERENCE The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Literary Terms Chris Baldick is Professor of English at Goldsmiths' College, University of London. He edited The Oxford Book of Gothic Tales (1992), and is the author of In Frankenstein's Shadow (1987), Criticism and Literary Theory 1890 to the Present (1996), and other works of literary history. He has edited, with Rob Morrison, Tales of Terror from Blackwood's Magazine, and The Vampyre and Other Tales of the Macabre, and has written an introduction to Charles Maturin's Melmoth the Wanderer (all available in the Oxford World's Classics series). The most authoritative and up-to-date reference books for both students and the general reader. Oxford Paperback Reference Abbreviations ABC of Music Accounting Archaeology* Architecture Art and Artists Art Terms* Astronomy Better Wordpower Bible Biology Buddhism* Business Card Games Chemistry Christian Church Classical Literature Classical Mythology* Colour Medical Computing Dance* Dates Earth Sciences Ecology Economics Engineering* English Etymology English Folklore* English Grammar English Language English Literature English Place-Names Euphemisms Film* Finance and Banking First Names Food and Nutrition Foreign Words and Phrases Fowler's Modern English Usage Geography Handbook of the World Humorous Quotations Idioms Irish Literature Jewish Religion Kings and Queens of Britain* King's English Law Linguistics Literary Quotations Literary Terms Local and Family History London Place Names* Mathematics Medical Medicines Modern Design* Modern Quotations Modern Slang Music Nursing Opera Paperback Encyclopedia Philosophy Physics Plant-Lore Plant Sciences Political Biography Political Quotations Politics Popes Proverbs Psychology* Quotations Sailing Terms Saints Science Scientists Shakespeare Ships and the Sea Sociology Statistics* Superstitions Synonyms and Antonyms Theatre Twentieth-Century Art Twentieth-Century P; oetry Twentieth-Century World History Weather Facts Who's Who in Opera Who's Who in the Classical World Who's Who in the Twentieth Century World History World Mythology World Religions Writers' Dictionary Zoology *forthcoming The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Literary Terms CHRIS BALDICK OXFORD UNIVERSITY PRESS OXFORD UNIVERSITY PRESS Great Clarendon Street, Oxford ox2 6DP Oxford University Press is a department of the University of Oxford. It furthers the University's objective of excellence in research, scholarship, and education by publishing worldwide in Oxford New York Athens Auckland Bangkok Bogota Buenos Aires Cape Town Chennai Dar es Salaam Delhi Florence Hong Kong Istanbul Karachi Kolkata Kuala Lumpur Madrid Melbourne Mexico City Mumbai Nairobi Paris Sao Paulo Singapore Taipei Tokyo Toronto Warsaw with associated companies in Berlin Ibadan Oxford is a registered trade mark of Oxford University Press in the UK and in certain other countries Published in the United States by Oxford University Press Inc., New York (C) Chris Baldick 2001 The moral rights of the author have been asserted Database right Oxford University Press (maker) First published 1990 First issued as an Oxford University Press paperback 1991 Reissued in new covers 1996 Second edition published 2001 All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means, without the prior permission in writing of Oxford University Press, or as expressly permitted by law, or under terms agreed with the appropriate reprographics rights organization. Enquiries concerning reproduction outside the scope of the above should be sent to the Rights Department, Oxford University Press, at the address above You must not circulate this book in any other binding or cover and you must impose the same condition on any acquirer British Library Cataloguing in Publication Data Data available Library of Congress Cataloging in Publication Data Data available ISBN 0-19-280118-X 13579108642 Typeset in Swift and Frutiger by Kolam Information Services Pvt. Ltd, Pondicherry, India Printed in Great Britain by Cox & Wyman Ltd., Reading, England For Steve, and Oriel Jane This page intentionally left blank Preface This is a book of hard words alphabetically arranged and briefly explained. It cannot purport to fulfil the functions of a balanced expository guide to literary criticism or literary concepts, nor does it attempt to catalogue the entire body of literary terms in use. It offers instead to clarify those thousand terms that are most likely to cause the student or general reader some doubt or bafflement in the context of literary criticism and other discussion of literary works. Rather than include for the sake of encyclopaedic completeness all the most common terms found in literary discussion, I have set aside several that I have judged to be sufficiently well understood in common speech (anagram, biography, cliche and many more), or virtually self-explanatory (detective story, psychological criticism), along with a broad category of general concepts such as art, belief, culture, etc., which may appear as literarycritical problems but which are not specifically literary terms. This policy has allowed space for the inclusion of many terms generated by the growth of academic literary theory in recent years, and for adequate attention to the terminology of classical rhetoric, now increasingly revived. Along with these will be found hundreds of terms from literary criticism, literary history, prosody, and drama. The selection is weighted towards literature and criticism in English, but there are many terms taken from other languages, and many more associated primarily with other literatures. Many of the terms that I have omitted from this dictionary are covered by larger or more specialist works; a brief guide to these appears on page 279. In each entry I have attempted to explain succinctly how the term is or has been used, with a brief illustrative example wherever possible, and to clarify any relevant distinctions of sense. Related terms are indicated by cross-reference, using an asterisk (*) before a term explained elsewhere in the dictionary, or the instruction see. I have chosen not to give much space to questions of etymology, and to discuss a term's origin only when this seems genuinely necessary to clarify its current sense. My attention has been devoted more to helping readers to use the terms confidently for themselves. To this end I have displayed the plural forms, adjectival forms, and other derived words relevant to each entry, and have provided pronunciation guides for more than two hundred potentially troublesome terms. The simplified pronunciation system Preface to the Second Edition viii used, closely based on the system devised by Joyce M. Hawkins for the Oxford Paperback Dictionary, offers a basic but sufficient indication of the essential features of stress-placing and vowel quality. One of its advantages is that it requires very little checking against the pronunciation key on page ix. In compiling this dictionary, the principal debt I have incurred is to my predecessors in the vexed business of literary definition and distinction, from Aristotle to the editors of the Princeton Encyclopedia of Poetry and Poetics. If the following entries make sense, it is very often because those who have gone before have cleared the ground and mapped its more treacherous sites. My thanks are owed also to Joyce Hawkins and Michael Ockenden for their help with pronunciations; to Kirn Scott Walwyn of Oxford University Press for her constant encouragement; to Peter Currie, Michael Hughes, Colin Pickthall, and Hazel Richardson for their advice on particular entries; to my students for giving me so much practice; and especially to Harriet Barry, Pamela Jackson, and John Simons for giving up their time to scrutinize the typescript and for the valuable amendments they suggested. C.B. Acknowledgement I am grateful to David Higham Associates Limited on behalf of Muriel Spark for permission to quote from The Prime of Miss Jean Brodie published by Macmillan Publishers Ltd. Preface to the Second Edition For this edition I have added new entries expanding the dictionary's coverage of terms from rhetoric, theatre history, textual criticism, and other fields; and introduced further terms that have arrived or become more prominent in literary usage in the last ten years. I have also updated many of the existing entries along with the appendix on general further reading, and more extensively attached additional recommendations for further reading to several of the longer or more complex entries. For advice on some of this additional material I am indebted to my colleagues Alcuin Blamires, Michael Bruce, Hayley Davis, and Philip McGowan. C.B. Pronunciation Where a term's pronunciation may not be immediately obvious from its spelling, a guide is provided in square brackets following the word or phrase. Words are broken up into small units, usually of one syllable. The syllable that is spoken with most stress in a word of two or more syllables is shown in bold type. The pronunciations given follow the standard speech of southern England. However, since this system is based on analogies rather than on precise phonetic description, readers who use other varieties of spoken English will rarely need to make any conscious adjustment to suit their own forms of pronunciation. The sounds represented are as follows: as in cat as in ago as in calm as in hair as in bar as in law ay as in say b as in bat ch as in chin d as in day e as in bed e as in taken ee as in meet eer as in beer er as in her ew as in few ewr as in pure f as in fat g as in get h as in hat a a ah air ar aw i I I j k 1 m n ng nk o 6 oh oi oo oor or ow P r as in pin as in pencil as in eye as in jam as in kind as in leg as in man as in not as in sing, finger as in thank as in top as in lemon as in most as in join as in soon as in poor as in for as in cow as in pen as in red s as in sit sh as in shop t as in top th as in thin th as in this u as in cup u as in focus uu as in book v os in voice w as in will y as in yes or when preceded by a consonant = I as in cry, realize yoo as in unit yoor as in Europe yr as in fire z as in zebra zh as in vision The raised n (n) is used to indicate the nasalizing of the preceding vowel sound in some French words, as in baton or in Chopin. In several French words no syllable is marked for stress, the distribution of stress being more even than in English. Pronunciation x A consonant is sometimes doubled, especially to help show that the vowel before it is short, or when without this the combination of letters might suggest a wrong pronunciation through looking misleadingly like a familiar word. A absurd, the, a term derived from the *EXISTENTIALISM of Albert Camus, and often applied to the modern sense of human purposelessness in a universe without meaning or value. Many 20thcentury writers of prose fiction have stressed the absurd nature of human existence: notable instances are the novels and stories of Franz Kafka, in which the characters face alarmingly incomprehensible predicaments. The critic Martin Esslin coined the phrase theatre of the absurd in 1961 to refer to a number of dramatists of the 1950s (led by Samuel Beckett and Eugene lonesco) whose works evoke the absurd by abandoning logical form, character, and dialogue together with realistic illusion. The classic work of absurdist theatre is Beckett's En attendant Godot (Waiting/or Godot, 1952), which revives some of the conventions of clowning and *FARCE to represent the impossibility of purposeful action and the paralysis of human aspiration. Other dramatists associated with the theatre of the absurd include Edward Albee, Jean Genet, Harold Pinter, and Vaclav Havel. For a fuller account, consult Arnold P. Hinchliffe, The Absurd (1969). academic drama (also called school drama), a dramatic tradition which arose from the *RENAISSANCE, in which the works of Plautus, Terence, and other ancient dramatists were performed in schools and colleges, at first in Latin but later also in *VERNACULAR adaptations composed by schoolmasters under the influence of * HUMANISM. This tradition produced the earliest English comedies, notably Ralph Roister Doister (c.1552) by the schoolmaster Nicholas Udall. acatalectic, possessing the full number of syllables in the final *FOOT (of a metrical verse line); not *CATALECTIC. Noun: acatalexis. accent, the emphasis placed upon a syllable in pronunciation. The term is often used as a synonym for * STRESS, although some theorists prefer to use 'stress' only for metrical accent. Three kinds of accent may be distinguished, according to the factor that accounts for each: etymological accent (or 'word accent') is the emphasis normally given to accentual verse 2 a syllable according to the word's derivation or *MORPHOLOGY; rhetorical accent (or 'sense accent') is allocated according to the relative importance of the word in the context of a sentence or question; metrical accent (or stress) follows a recurrent pattern of stresses in a verse line (see metre). Where metrical accent overrides etymological or rhetorical accent, as it often does in *BALLADS and songs (Coleridge: 'in a far countree'), the effect is known as a wrenched accent. See also ictus, recessive accent. accentual verse, verse in which the *METRE is based on counting only the number of stressed syllables in a line, and in which the number of unstressed syllables in the line may therefore vary. Most verse in Germanic languages (including Old English) is accentual, and much English poetry of later periods has been written in accentual verse, especially in the popular tradition of songs, *BALLADS, nursery rhymes, and hymns. The predominant English metrical system in the 'high' literary tradition since Chaucer, however, has been that of accentualsyllabic verse, in which both stressed and unstressed syllables are counted: thus an iambic *PENTAMETER should normally have five stresses distributed among its ten syllables (or, with a *FEMININE ENDING, eleven syllables). See also alliterative metre acephalous [a-sef-al-us], the Greek word for 'headless', applied to a metrical verse line that lacks the first syllable expected according to regular *METRE; e.g. an iambic *PENTAMETER missing the first unstressed syllable, as sometimes in Chaucer: Twenty bookes, clad in blak or reed Noun: acephalexis. See also truncation. Acmeism, a short-lived (c.1911-1921) but significant movement in early 20th-century Russian poetry, aiming for precision and clarity in opposition to the alleged vagueness of the preceding *SYMBOLIST movement. Its leaders, Nikolai Gumilev and Sergei Gorodetsky, founded an Acmeist 'Poets' Guild' in 1911, and propounded its principles in the magazine Apollon. The principal poetic luminaries of this school were Anna Akhmatova (1889-1966) and Osip Mandelstam (1891-1938). acrostic, a poem in which the initial letters of each line can be read down the page to spell either an alphabet, a name (often that of the author, a patron, or a loved one), or some other concealed message. 3 aesthetics Variant forms of acrostic may use middle letters or final letters of lines or, in prose acrostics, initial letters of sentences or paragraphs. act, a major division in the action of a play, comprising one or more *SCENES. A break between acts often coincides with a point at which the plot jumps ahead in time. actant, in the *NARRATOLOGYof A. J. Greimas, one of six basic categories of fictional role common to all stories. The actants are paired in *BINARY OPPOSITION: Subject/Object, Sender/Receiver, Helper/ Opponent. A character (or acteur) is an individualized manifestation of one or more actants; but an actant may be realized in a non-human creature (e.g. a dragon as Opponent) or inanimate object (e.g. magic sword as Helper, or Holy Grail as Object), or in more than one acteur, Adjective: actantial. adynaton, a *FIGURE OF SPEECH related to *HYPERBOLE that emphasizes the inexpressibility of some thing, idea, or feeling, either by stating that words cannot describe it, or by comparing it with something (e.g. the heavens, the oceans) the dimensions of which cannot be grasped. Aestheticism, the doctrine or disposition that regards beauty as an end in itself, and attempts to preserve the arts from subordination to moral, * DIDACTIC, or political purposes. The term is often used synonymously with the Aesthetic Movement, a literary and artistic tendency of the late 19th century which may be understood as a further phase of *ROMANTICISM in reaction against * PHILISTINE bourgeois values of practical efficiency and morality. Aestheticism found theoretical support in the * AESTHETICS of Immanuel Kant and other German philosophers who separated the sense of beauty from practical interests. Elaborated by Theophile Gautier in 1835 as a principle of artistic independence, aestheticism was adopted in France by Baudelaire, Flaubert, and the *SYMBOLISTS, and in England by Walter Pater, Oscar Wilde, and several poets of the 1890s, under the slogan I'art pour I'art (*'art for art's sake'). Wilde and other devotees of pure beauty—like the artists Whistler and Beardsley—were sometimes known as aesthetes. See also decadence, fin de siecle. For a fuller account, consult R. V. Johnson, Aestheticism (1969). aesthetics (US esthetics), philosophical investigation into the nature of beauty and the perception of beauty, especially in the arts; the theory of art or of artistic taste. Adjective: aesthetic or esthetic. affective 4 affective, pertaining to emotional effects or dispositions (known in psychology as 'affects'). Affective criticism or affectivism evaluates literary works in terms of the feelings they arouse in audiences or readers (see e.g. catharsis). It was condemned in an important essay by W. K. Wimsatt and Monroe C. Beardsley (in The Verbal Icon, 1954) as the affective fallacy, since in the view of these *NEW CRITICS such affective evaluation confused the literary work's objective qualities with its subjective results. The American critic Stanley Fish has given the name affective stylistics to his form of *READER-RESPONSE CRITICISM. See also intentional fallacy. afflatus, a Latin term for poetic inspiration. agitprop [aj-it-prop], a Russian abbreviation of 'agitation and propaganda', applied to the campaign of cultural and political propaganda mounted in the years after the 1917 revolution. The term is sometimes applied to the simple form of *DIDACTIC drama which the campaign employed, and which influenced the *EPIC THEATRE of Piscator and Brecht in Germany. agon [a-gohn] (plural agones [a-goh-niz]), the contest or dispute between two characters which forms a major part of the action in the Greek *OLD COMEDY of Aristophanes, e.g. the debate between Aeschylus and Euripides in his play The Frogs (405 BCE). The term is sometimes extended to formal debates in Greek tragedies. Adjective: agonistic. alba, see aubade. Alcaics, a Greek verse form using a four-line *STANZA in which the first two lines have eleven syllables each, the third nine, and the fourth ten. The * METRE, predominantly * DACTYLIC, was used frequently by the Roman poet Horace, and later by some Italian and German poets, but its * QUANTITATIVE basis makes it difficult to adapt into English—although Tennyson and Clough attempted English Alcaics, and Peter Reading has experimented with the form in Ukelele Music (1985) and other works. aleatory [ayl-eer-tri] or aleatoric, dependent upon chance. Aleatory writing involves an element of randomness either in composition, as in *AUTOMATIC WRITING and the *CUT-UP, or in the reader's selection and ordering of written fragments, as in B. S. Johnson's novel The Unfortunates (1969), a box of loose leaves which the reader could shuffle at will. Alexandrianism, the works and styles of the Alexandrian school of 5 allegory Greek poets in the *HELLENISTIC age (323 BCE-31 BCE), which included Callimachus, Apollonius Rhodius, and Theocritus. The Alexandrian style was marked by elaborate artificiality, obscure mythological *ALLUSION, and eroticism. It influenced Catullus and other Roman poets. alexandrine, a verse line of twelve syllables adopted by poets since the 16th century as the standard verse-form of French poetry, especially dramatic and narrative. It was first used in 12th-century *CHANSONS DE GESTE, and probably takes its name from its use in Lambert le Tort's Roman d'Alexandre (c.1200). The division of the line into two groups of six syllables, divided by a * CAESURA, was established in the age of Racine, but later challenged by Victor Hugo and other 19th-century poets, who preferred three groups of four. The English alexandrine is an iambic * HEXAMETER (and thus has six stresses, whereas the French line usually has four), and is found rarely except as the final line in the * SPENSERIAN STANZA, as in Keats's The Eve of St Agnes': She knelt, so pure a thing, so free from mortal taint. alienation effect or A-eff ect, the usual English translation of the German Verfremdungseffekt or V-effekt, a major principle of Bertolt Brecht's theory of * EPIC THEATRE. It is a dramatic effect aimed at encouraging an attitude of critical detachment in the audience, rather than a passive submission to realistic illusion; and achieved by a variety of means, from allowing the audience to smoke and drink to interrupting the play's action with songs, sudden scene changes, and switches of role. Actors are also encouraged to distance themselves from their characters rather than identify with them; ironic commentary by a narrator adds to this 'estrangement'. By reminding the audience of the performance's artificial nature, Brecht hoped to stimulate a rational view of history as a changeable human creation rather than as a fated process to be accepted passively. Despite this theory, audiences still identify emotionally with the characters in Mother Courage (1941) and Brecht's other plays. The theory was derived partly from the *RUSSIAN FORMALISTS' concept of *DEFAMILIARIZATION. allegory, a story or visual image with a second distinct meaning partially hidden behind its literal or visible meaning. The principal technique of allegory is * PERSONIFICATION, whereby abstract qualities are given human shape—as in public statues of Liberty or Justice. An allegory may be conceived as a *METAPHOR that is extended into a structured system. In written narrative, allegory involves a continuous alliteration parallel between two (or more) levels of meaning in a story, so that its persons and events correspond to their equivalents in a system of ideas or a chain of events external to the tale: each character and episode in John Bunyan's The Pilgrim's Progress (1678), for example, embodies an idea within a pre-existing Puritan doctrine of salvation. Allegorical thinking permeated the Christian literature of the Middle Ages, flourishing in the *MORALITY PLAYS and in the *DREAM VISIONS of Dante and Langland. Some later allegorists like Dryden and Orwell used allegory as a method of * SATIRE; their hidden meanings are political rather than religious. In the medieval discipline of biblical *EXEGESIS, allegory became an important method of interpretation, a habit of seeking correspondences between different realms of meaning (e.g. physical and spiritual) or between the Old Testament and the New (see typology). It can be argued that modern critical interpretation continues this allegorizing tradition. See also anagogical, emblem, exemplum, fable, parable, psychomachy, symbol. For a fuller account, consult Angus Fletcher, Allegory (1964). alliteration (also known as 'head rhyme' or 'initial rhyme'), the repetition of the same sounds—usually initial consonants of words or of stressed syllables—in any sequence of neighbouring words: 'Landscapelover, lord of language' (Tennyson). Now an optional and incidental decorative effect in verse or prose, it was once a required element in the poetry of Germanic languages (including Old English and Old Norse) and in Celtic verse (where alliterated sounds could regularly be placed in positions other than the beginning of a word or syllable). Such poetry, in which alliteration rather than * RHYME is the chief principle of repetition, is known as alliterative verse; its rules also allow a vowel sound to alliterate with any other vowel. See also alliterative metre, alliterative revival, assonance, consonance. alliterative metre, the distinctive verse form of Old Germanic poetry, including Old English. It employed a long line divided by a * CAESURA into two balanced half-lines, each with a given number of stressed syllables (usually two) and a variable number of unstressed syllables. These halflines are linked by * ALLITERATION between both (sometimes one) of the stressed syllables in the first half and the first (and sometimes the second) stressed syllable in the second half. In Old English, the lines were normally unrhymed and not organized in * STANZAS, although some works of the later Middle English *ALLITERATIVE REVIVAL used both stanzaic patterns and rhyme. This *METRE was the standard form of verse in English until the llth century, and was still important in the 14th, but 7 ambiguity declined under the influence of French *SYLLABIC VERSE. W. H. Auden revived its use in The Age of Anxiety (1948). These lines from the 14thcentury poem Piers Plowman illustrate the alliterative metre: Al for love of oure Lord livede wel straite, In hope for to have hevene-riche blisse. See also accentual verse. alliterative revival, a term covering the group of late 14th-century English poems written in an * ALLITERATIVE METRE similar to that of Old English verse but less regular (notably in Langland's Piers Plowman) and sometimes—as in the anonymous Pearl and Sir Gawain and the Green Knight—using rhyme and elaborate * STANZA structure. This group may represent more a continuation than a revival of the alliterative tradition. allusion, an indirect or passing reference to some event, person, place, or artistic work, the nature and relevance of which is not explained by the writer but relies on the reader's familiarity with what is thus mentioned. The technique of allusion is an economical means of calling upon the history or the literary tradition that author and reader are assumed to share, although some poets (notably Ezra Pound and T. S. Eliot) allude to areas of quite specialized knowledge. In his poem The Statues'— When Pearse summoned Cuchulain to his side What stalked through the Post Office? —W. B. Yeats alludes both to the hero of Celtic legend (Cuchulain) and to the new historical hero (Patrick Pearse) of the 1916 Easter Rising, in which the revolutionaries captured the Dublin Post Office. In addition to such topical allusions to recent events, Yeats often uses personal allusions to aspects of his own life and circle of friends. Other kinds of allusion include the imitative (as in * PARODY), and the structural, in which one work reminds us of the structure of another (as Joyce's Ulysses refers to Homer's Odyssey). Topical allusion is especially important in * SATIRE. Adjective: allusive. ambiguity, openness to different interpretations; or an instance in which some use of language may be understood in diverse ways. Sometimes known as 'plurisignation' or 'multiple meaning', ambiguity became a central concept in the interpretation of poetry after William Empson, in Seven Types of Ambiguity (1930), defended it as a source of poetic richness rather than a fault of imprecision. Ambiguities in American Renaissance everyday speech are usually resolved by their context, but isolated statements ('they are hunting dogs') or very compressed phrases like book titles (Scouting for Boys) and newspaper headlines (GENERALS FLY BACK TO FRONT) can remain ambiguous. The verbal compression and uncertain context of much poetry often produce ambiguity: in the first line of Keats's 'Ode on a Grecian Urn', Thou still unravish'd bride of quietness, 'still' may mean 'even yet' or 'immobile', or both. The simplest kind of ambiguity is achieved by the use of *HOMOPHONES in the *PUN. On a larger scale, a character (e.g. Hamlet, notoriously) or an entire story may display ambiguity. See also double entendre, equivoque, multiaccentuality, polysemy. American Renaissance, the name sometimes given to a flourishing of distinctively American literature in the period before the Civil War. As described by F. O. Matthiessen in his influential critical work American Renaissance (1941), this renaissance is represented by the work of Ralph Waldo Emerson, H. D. Thoreau, Nathaniel Hawthorne, Herman Melville, and Walt Whitman. Its major works are Hawthorne's The Scarlet Letter (1850), Melville's Moby-Dick (1851), and Whitman's Leaves of Grass (1855). The American Renaissance may be regarded as a delayed manifestation of *ROMANTICISM, especially in Emerson's philosophy of *TRANSCENDENTALISM. amoebean verses [a-me-bee-an], a poetic form in which two characters chant alternate lines, *COUPLETS, or* STANZAS, in competition or debate with one another. This form is found in the * PASTORAL poetry of Theocritus and Virgil, and was imitated by Spenser in his Shepheardes Calender (1579); it is similar to the *DEBAT, and sometimes resembles *STICHOMYTHIA. See also flyting. amphibrach [am-fib-rak], a metrical *FOOT consisting of one stressed syllable between two unstressed syllables, as in the word 'confession' (or, in * QUANTITATIVE VERSE, one long syllable between two shorts). It is the opposite of the *AMPHIMACER. It was rarely used in classical verse, but may occur in English in combination with other feet. amphimacer [am-flm-ase], a Greek metrical *FOOT, also known as the cretic foot. The opposite of the *AMPHIBRACH, it has one short syllable between two long ones (thus in English verse, one unstressed syllable between two stressed, as in the phrase 'bowing down'). Sometimes used 9 anadiplosis in Roman comedy, it occurs rarely in English verse. Blake's 'Spring' is an example: Sound the flute! / Now it's mute; / Birds delight / Day and night. anachronism, the misplacing of any person, thing, custom, or event outside its proper historical time. Performances of Shakespeare's plays in modern dress use deliberate anachronism, but many fictional works based on history include unintentional examples, the most famous being the clock in Shakespeare's Julius Caesar. Adjective: anachronistic. anachrony [an-ak-roni], a term used in modern *NARRATOLOGY to denote a discrepancy between the order in which events of the * STORY occur and the order in which they are presented to us in the *PLOT. Anachronies take two basic forms: 'flashback' or *ANALEPSIS, and 'fiashforward' or *PROLEPSIS. Adjective: anachronic. See also in medias res. anacoluthon [an-a-ko-loo-thon], a grammatical term for a change of construction in a sentence that leaves the initial construction unfinished: 'Either you go—but we'll see.' Adjective: anacoluthic. Anacreontics [a-nayk-ri-on-tiks], verses resembling, either metrically or in subject-matter, those of the Greek poet Anacreon (6th century BCE) or of his later imitators in the collection known as the Anacreontea. Metrically, the original Anacreontic line combined long (-) and short (w) syllables in the pattern u u - u - u - - . It was imitated in English by Sir Philip Sidney. More often, though, the term refers to the subject-matter: the celebration of love and drinking. Anacreontics in this sense are usually written in short *TROCHAIC lines, as in Tom Moore's translated Odes of Anacreon (1800): Hither haste, some cordial soul! Give my lips the brimming bowl. anacrusis (plural -uses), the appearance of an additional unstressed syllable or syllables at the beginning of a verse line, before the regular metrical pattern begins. anadiplosis [an-a-di-ploh-sis] (plural -oses), a *RHETORICAL FIGURE of repetition in which a word or phrase appears both at the end of one clause, sentence, or stanza, and at the beginning of the next, thus linking the two units, as in the final line of Shakespeare's 36th sonnet: anagnorisis 10 As thou being mine, mine is thy good report. See also climax. anagnorisis [an-ag-nor-is-is] (plural -ises), the Greek word for 'recognition' or 'discovery', used by Aristotle in his Poetics to denote the turning point in a drama at which a character (usually the * PROTAGONIST) recognizes the true state of affairs, having previously been in error or ignorance. The classic instance is Oedipus' recognition, in Oedipus Tyrannus, that he himself has killed his own father Laius, married his mother Jocasta, and brought the plague upon Thebes. The anagnorisis is usually combined with the play's *PERIPETEIA or reversal of fortunes, in comedy as in tragedy. Similarly, the plots of many novels involve crucial anagnorises, e.g. Pip's discovery, in Great Expectations, that Magwitch rather than Miss Havisham has been his secret benefactor. See also denouement. For a fuller account, consult Terence Cave, Recognitions (1988). anagogical [an-a-goj-ik-al], revealing a higher spiritual meaning behind the literal meaning of a text. Medieval Christian *EXEGESIS of the Bible (see typology) reinterpreted many episodes of Hebrew scripture according to four levels of meaning: the literal, the allegorical, the moral, and the anagogical. Of these, the anagogical sense was seen as the highest, relating to the ultimate destiny of humanity according to the Christian scheme of universal history, whereas the allegorical and moral senses refer respectively to the Church and to the individual soul. Anagogy or anagoge is thus a specialized form of allegorical interpretation, which reads texts in terms of *ESCHATOLOGY. See also allegory. analepsis (plural -pses), a form of *ANACHRONY by which some of the events of a story are related at a point in the narrative after later storyevents have already been recounted. Commonly referred to as retrospection or flashback, analepsis enables a storyteller to fill in background information about characters and events. A narrative that begins *IN MEDIAS RES will include an analeptic account of events preceding the point at which the tale began. See also prolepsis. analogy, illustration of an idea by means of a more familiar idea that is similar or parallel to it in some significant features, and thus said to be analogous to it. Analogies are often presented in the form of an extended *SIMILE, as in Blake's *APHORISM: 'As the caterpillar chooses 11 anatomy the fairest leaves to lay her eggs on, so the priest lays his curse on the fairest joys.' In literary history, an analogue is another story or plot which is parallel or similar in some way to the story under discussion. Verb: analogize. anapaest (US anapest) [an-a-pest], a metrical *FOOT made up of two unstressed syllables followed by a stressed syllable, as in the word 'interrupt' (or, in *QUANTITATIVE VERSE, two short syllables followed by a long one). Originally a Greek marching beat, adopted by some Greek and Roman dramatists, the *RISING rhythm of anapaestic (or anapestic) verse has sometimes been used by poets in English to echo energetic movement, notably in Robert Browning's 'How they Brought the Good News from Ghent to Aix' (1845): Not a word to each other; we kept the great pace Neck by neck, stride by stride, never changing our place. Others have used anapaestic verse for tones of solemn complaint, as in this famous line from Swinburne's 'Hymn to Proserpine' (1866): Thou hast conquered, O pale Galilean; the world has grown grey from thy breath. Lines made up of anapaests alone are rare in English verse, though; more often they are used in combination with other feet. The commonest anapaestic verse form in English, the *LIMERICK, usually omits the first syllable in its first, second, and fifth lines. See also metre, triple metre. anaphora [a-naf-6-ra], a rhetorical *FIGURE of repetition in which the same word or phrase is repeated in (and usually at the beginning of) successive lines, clauses, or sentences. Found very often in both verse and prose, it was a device favoured by Dickens and used frequently in the * FREE VERSE of Walt Whitman. These lines by Emily Dickinson illustrate the device: Mine—by the Right of the White Election! Mine—by the Royal Seal! Mine—by the Sign in the Scarlet prison Bars—cannot conceal! Adjective: anaphoral or anaphoric. See also epistrophe. anatomy, a written analysis of some subject, which purports to be thorough and comprehensive. The famous model for this literary form is Robert Burton's Anatomy of Melancholy (1621). The Canadian critic Northrop Frye, in Anatomy of Criticism (1957), discusses the anatomy as an important category of fiction similar to the *MENIPPEAN SATIRE. Angry Young Men 12 A humorous display of extensive and detailed knowledge, as in Melville's account of whaling in Moby-Dick (1851) or Thomas Pynchon's rocket-lore in Gravity's Rainbow (1973), is characteristic of this *GENRE. Angry Young Men, a term applied by journalists in the 1950s to the authors and *PROTAGONISTS of some contemporary novels and plays that seemed to sound a note of protest or resentment against the values of the British middle class. The most striking example of the angry young man was Jimmy Porter, the ranting protagonist of John Osborne's play Look Back in Anger (1956). Other works then taken to express 'angry' attitudes included Kingsley Amis's *CAMPUS NOVEL Lucky Jim (1954), and John Braine's novel of social ambition, Room at the Top (1957), but the label is more appropriate to the * ANTI-HEROES of these works than to the authors, whose views were hastily misinterpreted as being socially radical. Angst, the German word for 'anxiety' or 'dread', used by the philosophers of *EXISTENTIALISM—notably the Danish theologian S0ren Kierkegaard in Begrebet Angst (The Concept of Dread, 1844)—to denote a state of anguish that we feel as we are confronted by the burden of our freedom and the accompanying responsibility to impose values and meanings on an *ABSURD universe. antagonist, the most prominent of the characters who oppose the * PROTAGONIST or hero(ine) in a dramatic or narrative work. The antagonist is often a villain seeking to frustrate a heroine or hero; but in those works in which the protagonist is represented as evil, the antagonist will often be a virtuous or sympathetic character, as Macduff is in Macbeth. antanaclasis, a *FIGURE OF SPEECH that makes a *PUN by repeating the same word, or two words sounding alike (see homophone), but with differing senses. anthem, originally an *ANTIPHON; Wilfred Owen's 'Anthem for Doomed Youth' and W. H. Auden's 'Anthem for St Cecilia's Day' both preserve something of this antiphonal sense. The term is now used more often to denote a song in which the words affirm a collective identity, usually expressing attachment to some nation, institution, or cause. Anthems have been adopted, formally or informally, by states, schools, sports clubs, and social movements of all kinds. A significant modern example is Tom Robinson's 'Glad to be Gay' (1977). 13 anti-novel anticlimax, an abrupt lapse from growing intensity to triviality in any passage of dramatic, narrative, or descriptive writing, with the effect of disappointed expectation or deflated suspense. Where the effect is unintentionally feeble or ridiculous it is known as *i BATHOS; but anticlimactic descent from the sublime to the ludicrous can also be used deliberately for comic effect. Byron employs comic anticlimax repeatedly in Don Juan, as in these lines from Canto II (1819), which describe the survivors of a shipwreck: Though every wave roll'd menacing to fill, And present peril all before surpass'd, They grieved for those who perished with the cutter And also for the biscuit-casks and butter. anti-hero or anti-heroine, a central character in a dramatic or narrative work who lacks the qualities of nobility and magnanimity expected of traditional heroes and heroines in *ROMANCES and *EPICS. Unheroic characters of this kind have been an important feature of the Western *NOVEL, which has subjected idealistic heroism to *PARODY since Cervantes's Don Quixote (1605). Flaubert's Emma Bovary (inMadame Bovary, 1857) and Joyce's Leopold Bloom (in Ulysses, 1922) are outstanding examples of this antiheroic ordinariness and inadequacy. The anti-hero is also an important figure in modern drama, both in the theatre of the *ABSURD and in the *TRAGEDIES of Arthur Miller, notably Death of a Salesman (1949). In these plays, as in many modern novels, the * PROTAGONIST is an ineffectual failure who succumbs to the pressure of circumstances. The anti-hero should not be confused with the *ANTAGONIST Or the *VILLAIN. anti-masque, a comic and grotesque piece of clowning that sometimes preceded the performance of a * MASQUE (hence the alternative spelling, antemasque). Ben Jonson introduced this farcical prelude to some of his masques from 1609 onwards, using it as a kind of *BURLESQUE of the main action. antimetabole [anti-me-tab-oli], a * FIGURE OF SPEECH in which a pair of words is repeated in reverse order: 'All for one, and one for all'. This figure is a sub-type of *CHIASMUS. anti-novel, a form of experimental fiction that dispenses with certain traditional elements of novel-writing like the analysis of characters' states of mind or the unfolding of a sequential *PLOT. The term is usually associated with the French *NOUVEAU ROMAN of Alain Robbe-Grillet, antiphon 14 Nathalie Sarraute, and Michel Butor in the 1950s, but has since been extended to include other kinds of fictional experiment that disrupt conventional *NARRATIVE expectations, as in some works in English by Flann O'Brien, Vladimir Nabokov, B. S. Johnson, and Christine BrookeRose. Antecedents of the anti-novel can be found in the blank pages and comically self-defeating digressions of Sterne's Tristram Shandy (1759-67) and in some of the innovations of * MODERNISM, like the absence of narration in Virginia Woolf s The Waves (1931). See also avant-garde, postmodernism. antiphon, a song, hymn, or poem in which two voices or choruses respond to one another in alternate verses or *STANZAS, as is common in verses written for religious services. Adjective: antiphonal [an-tif-6n-al]. See also amoebean verses, anthem. antiphrasis [an-tif-ra-sis], a *FIGURE OF SPEECH in which a single word is used in a sense directly opposite to its usual meaning, as in the naming of a giant as Tiny' or of an enemy as 'friend'; the briefest form of *IRONY. Adjective: antiphrastic. antistrophe [an-tis-tro-fi], (1) the returning movement of the Greek dramatic *CHORUS of dancers, after their first movement or *STROPHE; hence also the accompanying verse lines recited by the chorus in a *STANZA matching exactly the *METRE of the preceding strophe. The *ODES of Pindar and his imitators conform to a triple structure of strophe, antistrophe, and *EPODE. (2) In *RHETORIC, antistrophe is also the name given to two rhetorical * FIGURES of repetition: in the first, the order of terms in one clause is reversed in the next ('All for one, and one for all'); in the second (also known as *EPISTROPHE), a word or phrase is repeated at the end of several successive clauses, lines, or sentences ('the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the truth'). Adjective: antistrophic. antithesis [an-tith-esis] (plural-theses), a contrast or opposition, either rhetorical or philosophical. In * RHETORIC, any disposition of words that serves to emphasize a contrast or opposition of ideas, usually by the balancing of connected clauses with parallel grammatical constructions. In Milton's Paradise Lost (1667), the characteristics of Adam and Eve are contrasted by antithesis: For contemplation he and valour formed, For softness she and sweet attractive grace; He for God only, she for God in him. 15 aphorism Antithesis was cultivated especially by Pope and other 18th-century poets. It is also a familiar device in prose, as in John Ruskin's sentence, 'Government and cooperation are in all things the laws of life; anarchy and competition the laws of death.' In philosophy, an antithesis is a second argument or principle brought forward to oppose a first proposition or *THESIS (see dialectic). Adjective: antithetical. antonomasia [an-ton-o-may-zia], a *FIGURE OF SPEECH that replaces a proper name with an *EPITHET (the Bard for Shakespeare), official address (His Holiness for a pope), or other indirect description; or one that applies a famous proper name to a person alleged to share some quality associated with it, e.g. a Casanova, a little Hitler. Antonomasia is common in *EPIC poetry: Homer frequently refers to Achilles as Pelides (i.e. son of Peleus). Adjective: antonomastic. See also metonymy. anxiety of influence, in the unusual view of literary history offered by the critic Harold Bloom, a poet's sense of the crushing weight of poetic tradition which he has to resist and challenge in order to make room for his own original vision. Bloom has in mind particularly the mixed feelings of veneration and envy with which the English Romantic poets regarded Milton, as a 'father' who had to be displaced by his 'sons'. This theory represents the development of poetic tradition as a masculine battle of wills modelled on Freud's concept of the Oedipus complex: the 'belated' poet fears the emasculating dominance of the 'precursor' poet and seeks to occupy his position of strength through a process of misreading or *MISPRISION of the parent-poem in the new poem, which is always a distortion of the original. Thus Shelley's 'Ode to the West Wind' is a powerful misreading of Wordsworth's 'Ode: Intimations of Immortality', through which the younger poet seeks to free himself from the hold of his predecessor. Bloom's theory is expounded in The Anxiety of Influence (1973), in which he claims that 'the covert subject of most poetry for the last three centuries has been the anxiety of influence, each poet's fear that no proper work remains for him to perform'. apercu [ap-air-soo], an insight. The French word for a 'glimpse', often used to refer to a writer's formulation or discovery of some truth. Also an outline or summary of a story or argument. aphorism, a statement of some general principle, expressed memorably by condensing much wisdom into few words: 'Give a man a mask and he will tell you the truth' (Wilde); 'The road of excess leads to the palace of wisdom' (Blake). Aphorisms often take the form of a apocalyptic 16 definition: 'Hypocrisy is a homage paid by vice to virtue' (La Rochefoucauld). An author who composes aphorisms is an aphorist. Adjective: aphoristic. See also apophthegm, maxim, proverb. apocalyptic, revealing the secrets of the future through prophecy; or having the character of an apocalypse or world-consuming holocaust. Apocalyptic writing is usually concerned with the coming end of the world, seen in terms of a visionary scheme of history, as in Yeats's poem 'The Second Coming'. See also eschatology. Apollonian and Dionysian, terms for the twin principles which the German philosopher Friedrich Nietzsche detected in Greek civilization in his early work Die Geburt der Tragddie (The Birth of Tragedy, 1872). Nietzsche was challenging the usual view of Greek culture as ordered and serene, emphasizing instead the irrational element of frenzy found in the rites of Dionysus (the god of intoxication known to the Romans as Bacchus). He associated the Apollonian tendency with the instinct for form, beauty, moderation, and symmetry, best expressed in Greek sculpture, while the Dionysian (or Dionysiac) instinct was one of irrationality, violence, and exuberance, found in music. This opposition has some resemblance to that between *CLASSICISM and *ROMANTICISM. In Nietzsche's theory of drama, the Apollonian (in dialogue) and the Dionysian (in choric song) are combined in early Greek tragedy, but then split apart in the work of Euripides; he hoped at first that Wagner's operas would reunite them. apologue, another word for a *FABLE, usually a *BEAST fable. apology, in the literary sense, a justification or defence of the writer's opinions or conduct, not usually implying (as in the everyday sense) any admission of blame. The major classical precedent is the Apologia of Socrates as recorded by Plato (4th century BCE), in which the philosopher defends himself unsuccessfully against the capital charge of impiety before the Athenian court, justifying his role as 'gadfly' to the state. Later writers adopted the title for various kinds of work from literary theory, as in Sidney's An Apologie for Poetry (1595), to autobiography, as in An Apology for the Life of Mr Colley Gibber, Comedian (1740) by the much-mocked poet laureate. John Henry Newman's Apologia Pro Vita Sua ('apology for his life', 1864) has a greater element of *POLEMIC, justifying his adoption of Roman Catholicism against aspersions cast by Charles Kingsley. An apology is sometimes called an apologetic. An apologist is more often a defender of some other person's actions, works, or beliefs. 17 apparatus apophthegm [ap-6-them] or apothegm, an *APHORISM or *MAXIM, especially one of the pithiest kind. Boswell refers to Johnson's famous saying, 'Patriotism is the last refuge of a scoundrel', as an apophthegm. A person who composes apophthegms is an apophthegmatist. Adjective: apophthegmatic or apothegmatic. aporia, in *RHETORIC, a *FIGURE OF SPEECH in which a speaker deliberates, or purports to be in doubt about a question, e.g. 'Well, what can one say?', or 'I hardly know which of you is the worse.' Hamlet's famous 'To be or not to be' soliloquy is an extended example. In the critical terminology of * DECONSTRUCTION, the term is frequently used in the sense of a final impasse or *PARADOX: a point at which a *TEXT'S selfcontradictory meanings can no longer be resolved, or at which the text undermines its own most fundamental presuppositions. It is this aporia that deconstructive readings set out to identify in any given work or passage, leading to the claim that the text's meanings are finally 'undecidable'. Adjective: aporetic. aposiopesis [ap-6-syr-pee-sis] (plural -peses), a *RHETORICAL device in which the speaker suddenly breaks off in the middle of a sentence, leaving the sense unfinished. The device usually suggests strong emotion that makes the speaker unwilling or unable to continue. The common threat 'get out, or else—' is an example. Adjective: aposiopetic. See also anacoluthon. apostrophe [a-pos-tro-fi], a rhetorical *FIGURE in which the speaker addresses a dead or absent person, or an abstraction or inanimate object. In classical *RHETORIC, the term could also denote a speaker's turning to address a particular member or section of the audience. Apostrophes are found frequently among the speeches of Shakespeare's characters, as when Elizabeth in Richard III addresses the Tower of London: Pity, you ancient stones, those tender babes Whom envy hath immured within your walls. The figure, usually employed for emotional emphasis, can become ridiculous when misapplied, as in Wordsworth's line Spade! with which Wilkinson hath tilled his lands The apostrophe is one of the *CONVENTIONS appropriate to the *ODE and to the *ELEGY. The poet's *INVOCATION of a *MUSE in *EPIC poetry is a special form of apostrophe. Verb: apostrophize. See also prosopopoeia. apparatus, a collective term (sometimes given in Latin as apparatus arbitrary 18 criticus) for the textual notes, glossary, lists of variant readings, appendices, introductory explanations and other aids to the study of a *TEXT, provided in scholarly editions of literary works or historical documents. arbitrary, lacking any natural basis or substantial justification. In the theory of the *SIGN elaborated by the Swiss linguist Ferdinand de Saussure, the relationship between the *SIGNIFIER (the sound-image or written mark) and its *SIGNIFIED (or concept) is described as 'unmotivated' or arbitrary because there is no natural or necessary bond between them, only the convention of a given language. The same applies to the relationship between the sign and the object to which it refers. The arbitrariness of these relationships can be shown by comparing the ways in which different languages allocate signifiers to signifieds. Some theorists point out that the sense of randomness attached to the term is misleading, and that the term 'conventional' is preferable. Arcadia or Arcady, an isolated mountainous region of Greece in the central Peloponnese, famed in the ancient world for its sheep and as the home of the god Pan. It was imagined by Virgil in his Eclogues (42-37 BCE), and by later writers of * PASTORALS in the * RENAISSANCE, as an ideal world of rural simplicity and tranquillity. The adjective Arcadian can be applied to any such imagined pastoral setting. See also idyll. archaism [ark-ay-izm], the use of words or constructions that have passed out of the language before the time of writing; or a particular example of such an obsolete word or expression. A common feature of much English poetry from Spenser to Hardy, it rarely appears in prose or in modern verse. Archaism may help to summon up a nostalgic flavour of the past, as in Spenser's use of Chaucerian expressions and in Coleridge's 'Rime of the Ancient Mariner', which imitates old ballads: There was a ship,' quoth he. 'Hold off! unhand me, greybeard loon!' Eftsoons his hand dropped he. Or it may help to maintain metrical regularity, as in the frequent use of the monosyllable morn for 'morning'. Keats combines both motives in this line from The Eve of St Agnes': Though thou forsakest a deceived thing Here the archaic pronunciation maintains the * METRE, and supports 19 Aristotelian (with the 'thou') the poem's medieval setting and atmosphere. See also diction, poeticism. archetype [ar-ki-typ], a *SYMBOL, theme, setting, or character-type that recurs in different times and places in *MYTH, *LITERATURE, *FOLKLORE, dreams, and rituals so frequently or prominently as to suggest (to certain speculative psychologists and critics) that it embodies some essential element of 'universal' human experience. Examples offered by the advocates of *MYTH CRITICISM include such recurrent symbols as the rose, the serpent, and the sun; common themes like love, death, and conflict; mythical settings like the paradisal garden; * STOCK CHARACTERS like the femme fatale, the hero, and the magician; and some basic patterns of action and plot such as the quest, the descent to the underworld, or the feud. The most fundamental of these patterns is often said to be that of death and rebirth, reflecting the natural cycle of the seasons: the Canadian critic Northrop Frye put forward an influential model of literature based on this proposition in Anatomy of Criticism (1957). Archetypal criticism originated in the early 20th century from the speculations of the British anthropologist J. G. Frazer in The Golden Bough (1890-1915)—a comparative study of mythologies—and from those of the Swiss psychologist C. G. Jung, who in the 1920s proposed that certain symbols in dreams and myths were residues of ancestral memory preserved in the *COLLECTIVE UNCONSCIOUS. More recently, critics have been wary of the *REDUCTIONISM involved in the application of such unverified hypotheses to literary works, and more alert to the cultural differences that the archetypal approach often overlooks in its search for universals. architectonics, the principle of structure and governing design in an artistic work, as distinct from its * TEXTURE or stylistic details of execution. argument, in the specialized literary sense, a brief summary of the *PLOT or subject-matter of a long poem (or other work), such as those prefixed to the books of Milton's Paradise Lost; or, in a sense closer to everyday usage, the set of opinions expounded in a work (especially in *DIDACTIC works) and capable of being *PARAPHRASED as a logical sequence of propositions. Aristotelian [a-ris-to-tee-li-an], belonging to or derived from the works of the Greek philosopher Aristotle (384-322 BCE), the most important of art for art's sake 20 all ancient philosophers in his influence on medieval science and logic, and on literary theory since the *RENAISSANCE. In his Poetics, Aristotle saw poetry in terms of the imitation or *MIMESIS of human actions, and accordingly regarded the *PLOT or mytlios as the basic principle of coherence in any literary work, which must have a beginning, a middle, and an end. Since the Renaissance, his name has been associated most often with his concepts of tragic *CATHARSIS, *ANAGNORISIS, and unity of action (see unities). The *CHICAGO CRITICS have been regarded as Aristotelian in the renewed emphasis they gave to the importance of plot in literature. art for art's sake, the slogan of *AESTHETICISM in the 19th century, often given in its French form as Vart pourl'art. The most important early manifesto for the idea, Theophile Gautier's preface to his novel Mademoiselle de Maupin (1835), does not actually use the phrase itself, which is a simplified expression of the principle adopted by many leading French authors and by Walter Pater, Oscar Wilde, and Arthur Symons in England. Asclepiad [as-klee-pi-ad], a Greek poetic *METRE named after Asclepiades of Samos (c.300 BCE), although it was used earlier in *LYRICS and *TRAGEDIES. It consists of two or three *CHORIAMBS preceded by a *SPONDEE and followed by an *IAMB. Employed frequently by Horace and later adopted by the German poet Holderlin, it is rarely found in English. Adjective: Asclepiadean. aside, a short speech or remark spoken by a character in a drama, directed either to the audience or to another character, which by * CONVENTION is supposed to be inaudible to the other characters on stage. See also soliloquy. assonance [ass-6n-ans], the repetition of identical or similar vowel sounds in the stressed syllables (and sometimes in the following unstressed syllables) of neighbouring words; itis distinct from *RHYME in that the consonants differ although the vowels or * DIPHTHONGS match: sweet dreams, hit or miss. As a substitute for rhyme at the ends of verse lines, assonance (sometimes called vowel rhyme or vocalic rhyme) had a significant function in early Celtic, Spanish, and French *VERSIFICATION (notably in the * CHANSONS DE GESTE), but in English it has been an optional poetic device used within and between lines of verse for emphasis or musical effect, as in these lines from Tennyson's The Lotos-Eaters': 21 Augustan Age And round about the keel with faces pale, Dark faces pale against that rosy flame, The mild-eyed melancholy Lotos-eaters came. Adjective: assonantal. See also alliteration, consonance, half-rhyme. asyndeton [a-sin-det-on] (plural -deta), a form of verbal compression which consists of the omission of connecting words (usually conjunctions) between clauses. The most common form is the omission of'and', leaving only a sequence of phrases linked by commas, as in these sentences from Conrad's Heart of Darkness: 'An empty stream, a great silence, an impenetrable forest. The air was thick, warm, heavy, sluggish.' The most famous example is Julius Caesar's boast, Veni, vidi, via (T came, I saw, I conquered'). Less common is the omission of pronouns, as in Auden' s early poem "The Watershed': 'two there were / Cleaned out a damaged shaft by hand'. Here the relative pronoun 'who' is omitted. Adjective: asyndetic. See also ellipsis, paratactic. Attic style or Atticism, the style of * ORATORY or prose writing associated with the speeches of the great Attic (i.e. Athenian) orators of the 5th and 4th centuries BCE, including Lysias and Demosthenes. Later Roman writers distinguished the purity and simplicity of these Attic models from the excessive artifice and ornamentation of the 'Asiatic' style that had since developed among the Greeks in Asia Minor. aubade [oh-bahd], also known by its Provencal name alba and in German as Tagelied (plural -lieder), a song or lyric poem lamenting the arrival of dawn to separate two lovers. The form, which has no fixed metrical pattern, flourished in the late Middle Ages in France; it was adopted in Germany by Wolfram von Eschenbach and in England by Chaucer, whose Troilus and Criseyde includes a fine aubade. Later English examples include Donne's The Sunne Rising' and Act III scene v of Shakespeare's Romeo and Juliet. Aufklarung, the German term for the *ENLIGHTENMENT. Augustan Age, the greatest period of Roman literature, adorned by the poets Virgil, Ovid, Horace, and Propertius. It is named after the reign (27 BCE-14 CE) of the emperor Augustus, but many literary historians prefer to date the literary period from the death of Julius Caesar in 44 CE, thus including the early works of Virgil and Horace. In English literary history, the term is usually applied to the period from the accession of Queen Anne (1702) to the deaths of Pope and Swift (1744-5), although aureate diction 22 John Diyden, whose major translation of Virgil's works appeared in 1697, may also be regarded as part of the English phenomenon known as Augustanism. The Augustans, led by Pope and Swift, wrote in conscious emulation of the Romans, adopted their literary forms (notably the *EPISTLE and the *SATIRE), and aimed to create a similarly sophisticated urban literary milieu: a characteristic preference in Augustan literature, encouraged by the periodicals of Addison and Steele, was for writing devoted to the public affairs and coffee-house gossip of the imperial capital, London. See also neoclassicism. aureate diction, a highly ornate ('gilded') poetic *DICTION favoured by the *SCOTTISH CHAUCERIANS and some English poets in the 15th century, notably JohnLydgate. The aureate style, perfected by William Dunbar, is notable for its frequent use of *INTERNAL RHYME and of *COINAGES adapted from Latin. Noun: aureation. automatic writing, a method of composition that tries to dispense with conscious control or mental censorship, transcribing immediately the promptings of the unconscious mind. Some writers in the early days of * SURREALISM attempted it, notably Andre Breton and Philippe Soupault in their work Les Champs Magnetiques (1919). W. B. Yeats had earlier conducted similar experiments with Georgie Hyde-Lees after their marriage in 1917; these seances influenced the mystical system of his prose work A Vision (1925). autotelic, having, as an artistic work, no end or purpose beyond its own existence. The term was used by T. S. Eliot in 1923 and adopted by *NEW CRITICISM to distinguish the self-referential nature of literary art from *DIDACTIC, philosophical, critical, or biographical works that involve practical reference to things outside themselves: in the words of the American poet Archibald MacLeish, 'A poem should not mean / But be'. A similar idea is implied in the theory of the 'poetic function' put forward in *RUSSIAN FORMALISM. auxesis, a *FIGURE OF SPEECH that lists a series of things in ascending order of importance, as in this line from Shakespeare's Richard II: O'erthrows thy joys, friends, fortune, and thy state See also climax. avant-garde, the French military and political term for the vanguard of an army or political movement, extended since the late 19th century 23 avant-garde to that body of artists and writers who are dedicated to the idea of art as experiment and revolt against tradition. Ezra Pound's view, that 'Artists are the antennae of the race', is a distinctly modern one, implying a duty to stay ahead of one's time through constant innovation in forms and subjects. B ballad, a *FOLK SONG or orally transmitted poem telling in a direct and dramatic manner some popular story usually derived from a tragic incident in local history or legend. The story is told simply, impersonally, and often with vivid dialogue. Ballads are normally composed in * QUATRAINS with alternating four-stress and three-stress lines, the second and fourth lines rhyming (see ballad metre); but some ballads are in *COUPLET form, and some others have six-line *STANZAS. Appearing in many parts of Europe in the late Middle Ages, ballads nourished particularly strongly in Scotland from the 15th century onward. Since the 18th century, educated poets outside the folk-song tradition— notably Coleridge and Goethe—have written imitations of the popular ballad's form and style: Coleridge's 'Rime of the Ancient Mariner' (1798) is a celebrated example. ballad metre or ballad stanza, the usual form of the folk ballad and its literary imitations, consisting of a * QUATRAIN in which the first and third lines have four stresses while the second and fourth have three stresses. Usually only the second and fourth lines rhyme. The rhythm is basically *IAMBIC, but the number of unstressed syllables in a line may vary, as in this * STANZA from the traditional 'Lord Thomas and Fair Annet': 'O art thou blind, Lord Thomas?' she said, 'Or canst thou not very well see? Or dost thou not see my own heart's blood Runs trickling down my knee?' This *METRE may also be interpreted (and sometimes printed) as a couplet of seven-stress lines, as in Kipling's 'Ballad of East and West' (1889): The Colonel's son has taken horse, and a raw rough dun was he, With the mouth of a bell and the heart of Hell and the head of a gallows-tree. See also common measure. ballade [bal-ahd], a form of French * LYRIC poem that flourished in the 25 bathos 14th and 15th centuries, notably in the work of Francois Villon. It normally consists of three *STANZAS of eight lines rhyming ababbcbc, with an * ENVOI (i.e. a final half-stanza) of four lines rhyming bcbc. The last line of the first stanza forms a * REFRAIN which is repeated as the final line of the subsequent stanzas and of the envoi. Conventionally, the envoi opens with an address to a prince or lord. Variant forms include the ballade with ten-line stanzas and a five-line envoi, and the double ballade with six stanzas and an optional envoi. Poets who have used this very intricate form in English include Chaucer and Swinburne. bard, a poet who was awarded privileged status in ancient Celtic cultures, and who was charged with the duty of celebrating the laws and heroic achievements of his people. In modern Welsh usage, a bard is a poet who has participated in the annual poetry festival known as the Eisteddfod. The nostalgic mythology of *ROMANTICISM tended to imagine the bards as solitary visionaries and prophets. Since the 18th century, the term has often been applied more loosely to any poet, and as a fanciful title for Shakespeare in particular. Adjective: bardic. bardolatry [bar-dol-atri], excessive veneration of Shakespeare. Ben Jonson said of Shakespeare, 'I loved the man, and do honour his memory, on this side idolatry, as much as any.' A bardolater is one who goes even further in revering 'the Bard'. Adjective: bardolatrous. baroque [ba-rok], eccentric or lavishly ornate in style. The term is used more precisely in music and in art history than it is in literary history, where it usually refers to the most artificial poetic styles of the early 17th century, especially those known as Gongorism and Marinism after the Spanish poet Luis de Gongora and the Italian poet Giovanni Battista Marini. In English, the ornate prose style of Sir Thomas Browne may be called baroque, as may the strange *CONCEITS of the *METAPHYSICAL POETS, especially Richard Crashaw. Some critics have tried to extend the term to Milton and the later works of Shakespeare as well. See also mannerism, rococo. bathos [bay-thos], a lapse into the ridiculous by a poet aiming at elevated expression. Whereas *ANTICLIMAX can be a deliberate poetic effect, bathos is an unintended failure. Pope named this stylistic blemish from the Greek word for 'depth', in his Peri Bathous, or the Art of Sinking in Poetry (1727). This example comes from Dryden's Annus MiraUlis (1667): beast fable 26 The Eternal heard, and from the heavenly quire Chose out the Cherub with the flaming sword And bad him swiftly drive the approaching fire From where our naval magazines were stored. Wordsworth, Whitman, and other poets who seek to dignify humble subjects are especially vulnerable to such lapses. Adjective: bathetic. beast fable, the commonest type of * FABLE, in which animals and birds speak and behave like human beings in a short tale usually illustrating some moral point. The fables attributed to Aesop (6th century BCE) and those written in verse by Jean de la Fontaine (from 1668) are the best known, along with the fables of Brer Rabbit adapted by the American journalist Joel Chandler Harris from black *FOLKLORE in his 'Uncle Remus' stories (from 1879). A related form is the beast epic, which is usually a longer tale written in pseudo-*EPIC style. Pierre de Saint-Cloud's Roman de Renart (1173) was an influential beast epic containing the Chanticleer story later adapted by Chaucer in the Nun's Priest's Tale. There were many other beast epics of Reynard the Fox in latemedieval France and Germany. Beat writers, a group of American writers in the late 1950s, led by the poet Allen Ginsberg and the novelist Jack Kerouac. Writers of the 'beat generation' dropped out of middle-class society in search of 'beatific' ecstasy through drugs, sex, and Zen Buddhism. Their loose styles favour spontaneous self-expression and recitation to jazz accompaniment. The principal works of the group are Ginsberg's Howl (1956) and Kerouac's On the Road (1957). Significant contributions in poetry were Gregory Corso's Gasoline (1958) and Gary Snyder's Riprap (1959); while in prose, the group's mentor William S. Burroughs published The Naked Lunch in 1959. The poet Lawrence Ferlinghetti was another leading figure. The Beats had a strong influence on the 'counter-culture' of the 1960s. belatedness, in Harold Bloom's theory of literary history (see anxiety of influence), the predicament of the poet who feels that previous poets have already said all that there is to say, leaving no room for new creativity. belles-lettres [bel-letr], the French term for 'fine writing', originally used (as in 'fine art') to distinguish artistic literature from scientific or philosophical writing. Since the 19th century, though, the term has more often been used dismissively to denote a category of elegant essaywriting and lightweight literary chatter, of which much was published in 27 black comedy Britain in the late 19th and early 20th centuries: Max Beerbohm's essays and Andrew Lang's Letters to Dead Authors (1896) are examples. An author of such elegant trifles is a belletrist. Adjective: belletristic. bestiary, a description of animal life in verse or prose, in which the characteristics of real and fabulous beasts (like the phoenix or the unicorn) are given edifying religious meanings. This kind of *ALLEGORY was popular in the Middle Ages, and survives in some later children's books. See also beast fable, emblem. bibliography, the description of books: (i) a systematic list of writings by a given author or on a given subject; (ii) the study of books as material objects, involving technical analysis of paper, printing methods, bindings, page-numbering, and publishing history. A compiler of bibliographies or a student of bibliography is a bibliographer. Bildungsroman [bil-duungz-raw-mahn] (plural-ane), a kind of novel that follows the development of the hero or heroine from childhood or adolescence into adulthood, through a troubled quest for identity. The term ('formation-novel') comes from Germany, where Goethe's Wilhelm Meisters Lehrjahre (1795-6) set the pattern for later Bildungsromane. Many outstanding novels of the 19th and early 20th centuries follow this pattern of personal growth: Dickens's David Copperfield (1849-50), for example. When the novel describes the formation of a young artist, as in Joyce's A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man (1916), it may also be called a *.KUNSTLERROMAN. For a fuller account, consult Franco Moretti, The Way of the World (1987). binary opposition, the principle of contrast between two mutually exclusive terms: on/off, up/down, left/right etc; an important concept of * STRUCTURALISM, which sees such distinctions as fundamental to all language and thought. The theory of *PHONOLOGY developed by Roman Jakobson uses the concept of 'binary features', which are properties either present or absent in any * PHONEME: voicing, for example is present in /z/ but not in /s/. This concept has been extended to anthropology by Claude Levi-Strauss (in such oppositions as nature/ culture, raw/cooked, inedible/edible), and to *NARRATOLOGYbyA. J. Greimas (see actant). black comedy, a kind of drama (or, by extension, a non-dramatic work) in which disturbing or sinister subjects like death, disease, or warfare, are treated with bitter amusement, usually in a manner calculated to blank verse 28 offend and shock. Prominent in the theatre of the *ABSURD, black comedy is also a feature of Joe Orton's Loot (1965). A similar black humour is strongly evident in modern American fiction from Nathanael West's A Cool Million (1934) to Joseph Heller's Catch-22 (1961) and Kurt Vonnegut's Slaughterhouse-Five (1969). blank verse, unrhymed lines of iambic *PENTAMETER, as in these final lines of Tennyson's 'Ulysses' (1842): One equal temper of heroic hearts, Made weak by time and fate, but strong in will To strive, to seek, to find, and not to yield. Blank verse is a very flexible English verse form which can attain rhetorical grandeur while echoing the natural rhythms of speech and allowing smooth *ENJAMBMENT. First used (c.1540) by Henry Howard, Earl of Surrey, it soon became both the standard * METRE for dramatic poetry and a widely used form for *NARRATIVE and meditative poems. Much of the finest verse in English—by Shakespeare, Milton, Wordsworth, Tennyson, and Stevens—has been written in blank verse. In other languages, notably Italian (in * HENDECASYLLABLES) and German, blank verse has been an important medium for poetic drama. Blank verse should not be confused with *FREE VERSE, which has no regular metre. blazon or blason, a poetic catalogue of a woman's admirable physical features, common in Elizabethan * LYRIC poetry: an extended example is Sidney's 'What tongue can her perfections tell?' The *PETRARCHAN conventions of the blazon include a listing of parts from the hair down, and the use of *HYPERBOLE and * SIMILE in describing lips like coral, teeth like pearls, and so on. These conventions are mocked in Shakespeare's famous sonnet, 'My mistress' eyes are nothing like the sun'. Bloomsbury group, a loose *COTERIE of writers linked by friendship to the homes of Vanessa Stephen (from 1907 Vanessa Bell) and her sister Virginia (from 1912 Virginia Woolf) in Bloomsbury—the university quarter of London near the British Museum—from about 1906 to the late 1930s. In addition to the sisters and their husbands—Clive Bell, the art critic, and Leonard Woolf, a political journalist—the group included the novelist E. M. Forster, the biographer Lytton Strachey, the economist John Maynard Keynes, and the art critic Roger Fry. It had no doctrine or aim, despite a shared admiration for the moral philosophy of G. E. Moore, but the group had some importance as a centre of modernizing liberal 29 bowdlerize opinion in the 1920s, and later as the subject of countless memoirs and biographies. bob and wheel, a short sequence of rhymed lines that concludes the larger unrhymed * STROPHES of Sir Gawain and the Green Knight and some other Middle English *ROMANCES. It consists of one short line (the bob) with a single stress, followed by four three-stress lines (the wheel) of which the second and fourth lines rhyme with the bob. bodice-ripper, a popular modern variety of *ROMANCE that emphasizes the sexual excitement of seduction and 'ravishment', usually in colourful settings based on the conventions of the *HISTORICAL NOVEL and peopled by pirates, highwaymen, wenches etc. A classic example is Kathleen Winsor's best-selling romance, Forever Amber (1944). See also S & F. bombast, extravagantly inflated and grandiloquent *DICTION, disproportionate to its subject. It was a common feature of English drama of Shakespeare's age, and of later *HEROIC DRAMA. Marlowe is known especially for the bombastic ranting of his Tamburlaine the Great (1590): Our quivering lances, shaking in the air, And bullets, like Jove's dreadful thunderbolts, Enroll'd in flames and fiery smouldering mists, Shall threat the gods more than Cyclopean wars; And with our sun-bright armour, as we march, We'll chase the stars from heaven, and dim their eyes That stand and muse at our admired arms. See also fustian, hyperbole, rodomontade. bovarysme [bohv-ar-eezm], a disposition towards escapist day dreaming in which one imagines oneself as a heroine or hero of a * ROMANCE and refuses to acknowledge everyday realities. This condition (a later version of Don Quixote's madness) can be found in fictional characters before Emma Bovary, the *PROTAGONIST of Gustave Flaubert's novel Madame Bovary (1857), gave it her name: for example, Catherine Morland in Jane Austen's Northanger Abbey (1818) makes similar confusions between fiction and reality. Novelists have often exposed bovarysme to ironic analysis, thus warning against the delusive enchantments of the romance tradition. bowdlerize, to censor or expurgate from a literary work those passages considered to be indecent or blasphemous. The word comes from Dr braggadocio 30 Thomas Bowdler, who published in 1818 The Family Shakespeare, 'in which those words or expressions are omitted which cannot with propriety be read aloud in a family'. Many oaths and sexually suggestive speeches were cut, and even entire characters like Doll Tearsheet in Henry W, Part One. Similarly bowdlerized editions of Gulliver's Travels and Moby-Dick have been produced for children. Nouns: bowdlerization, bowdlerism. braggadocio [brag-a-doh-chi-oh], a cowardly but boastful man who appears as a *STOCK CHARACTER in many comedies; or the empty boasting typical of such a braggart. This sort of character was known in Greek comedy as the alazon. When he is a soldier, he is often referred to as the miles gloriosus (Vainglorious soldier') after the title of a comedy by the Roman dramatist Plautus. The most famous example in English drama is Shakespeare's Falstaff. Brechtian, belonging to or derived from the work of Bertolt Brecht (1898-1956), German poet, playwright, and dramatic theorist. When applied to the work of other dramatists, the term usually indicates their use of the techniques of * EPIC THEATRE, especially the disruption of realistic illusion known as the *ALIENATION EFFECT. bricolage [brik-O-lahzh], a French term for improvisation or a piece of makeshift handiwork. It is sometimes applied to artistic works in a sense similar to *COLLAGE: an assemblage improvised from materials ready to hand, or the practice of transforming 'found' materials by incorporating them in a new work. Verb: bricoler. broadside, a large sheet of paper printed on one side only, often containing a song or *BALLAD, and sold by wandering pedlars in Britain from the 16th century until the beginning of the 20th century, when they were superseded by mass-circulation newspapers; they also appeared in the USA in the late 19th century. The broadside ballads were intended to be sung to a well-known tune; often they related topical events, and some were adopted as *FOLK SONGS. Broadsides are sometimes called broadsheets. broken rhyme, the splitting of a word (not in fact of the rhyme) at the end of a verse line, to allow a rhyme on a syllable other than the final one, which is transferred to the following line. It is a liberty taken for comic effect in light verse, and more rarely used in serious works. Hopkins employed it frequently: the first line of The Windhover' ends with the first syllable of 'king/dom' to rhyme with 'wing' in line four. 31 Byron ic bucolic poetry or bucolics [bew-kol-ik], another term for *PASTORAL poetry, especially for Virgil's Eclogues (42-37 BCE) and later imitations. More loosely, any verse on rustic subjects. See also eclogue, idyll. burden, the *REFRAIN or chorus of a song; or the main theme of a song, poem, or other literary work. A burden is sometimes distinguished from a refrain in that it starts the song or poem, and stands separate from the *STANZAS (as in many medieval *CAROLS), whereas a refrain usually appears as the final part of each stanza. burlesque [ber-lesk], a kind of *PARODY that ridicules some serious literary work either by treating its solemn subject in an undignified style (see travesty), or by applying its elevated style to a trivial subject, as in Pope's *MOCK-EPIC poem The Rape of the Lock (1712-14). Often used in the theatre, burlesque appears in Shakespeare's A Midsummer Night's Dream (in the Pyramus and Thisbe play, which mocks the tradition of * INTERLUDES), while The Beggar's Opera (1728) by John Gay burlesques Italian opera. An early form of burlesque is the Greek * SATYR PLAY. In the USA, though, burlesque is also a disreputable form of comic entertainment with titillating dances or striptease. See also extravaganza, satire. Burns stanza or Burns metre, a six-line *STANZArhyming aaabab, the first three lines and the fifth having four *STRESSES, and the fourth and sixth having two stresses. Although it was used much earlier in medieval English *ROMANCES and Provencal poetry, it is named after the Scottish poet Robert Burns (1759-96), who used it frequently, as in 'A Poet's Welcome to his love-begotten Daughter': Welcome! My bonie, sweet, wee dochter! Though ye come here a wee unsought for; And though your comin I hae fought for, Baith Kirk and Queir; Yet by my faith, ye're no unwrought for, That I shall swear! Byronic, belonging to or derived from Lord Byron (1788-1824) or his works. The Byronic hero is a character-type found in his celebrated narrative poem Childe Harold's Pilgrimage (1812-18), his verse drama Manfred (1817), and other works; he is a boldly defiant but bitterly self-tormenting outcast, proudly contemptuous of social norms but suffering for some unnamed sin. Emily Bronte's Heathcliff in Wuthering Heights (1847) is a later example. See also poete maudit. c cacophony [ka-ko-foni], harshness or discordancy of sound; the opposite of * EUPHONY. Usually the result of awkward *ALLITERATION as in tongue-twisters, it is sometimes used by poets for deliberate effect, as in these lines from Robert Browning's 'Caliban upon Setebos': And squared and stuck there squares of soft white chalk, And, with a fish-tooth, scratched a moon on each, And set up endwise certain spikes of tree, And crowned the whole with a sloth's skull a-top. Adjective: cacophonous or cacaphonic. See also dissonance. cadence [kay-dens], the rising and falling *RHYTHM of speech, especially that of the balanced phrases in *FREE VERSE or in prose, as distinct from the stricter rhythms of verse * METRE. Also the fall or rise in pitch at the end of a phrase or sentence. Adjective: cadent. caesura [si-zew-ra] (plural -as or-ae), a pause in a line of verse, often coinciding with a break between clauses or sentences. It is usually placed in the middle of the line ('medial caesura'), but may appear near the beginning ('initial') or towards the end ('terminal'). In *SCANSION, a caesura is normally indicated by the symbol ||.If it follows a stressed syllable, it is known as a 'masculine' caesura, while if it follows an unstressed syllable, it is 'feminine'. The regular placing of the caesura was an important metrical requirement in much Greek and Latin verse, in the Old English and Middle English *ALLITERATIVE METRE, and in the French *ALEXANDRINE; but in the English iambic *PENTAMETER there is scope for artful variation between medial, initial, and terminal positions, and a line may have more than one caesura, or none. In Greek and Latin * PROSODY, the term is also applied to a break between words within a *FOOT: the opposite of *DIAERESIS. Adjective: caesural. Cambridge school, the name sometimes given to an influential group of English critics associated with the University of Cambridge in the 1920s and 1930s. The leading figures were I. A. Richards, F. R. Leavis, Q. D. Leavis, and William Empson. Influenced by the critical writings of 33 carnivalization Coleridge and of T. S. Eliot, they rejected the prevalent biographical and historical modes of criticism in favour of the 'close reading' of texts. They saw poetry in terms of the reintegration of thought and feeling (see dissociation of sensibility), and sought to demonstrate its subtlety and complexity, notably in Empson's Seven Types of Ambiguity (1930). The Leavises achieved great influence through the journal Scrutiny (1932-53), judging literary works according to their moral seriousness and 'lifeenhancing' tendency. See also Leavisites, practical criticism. campus novel, a novel, usually comic or satirical, in which the action is set within the enclosed world of a university (or similar seat of learning) and highlights the follies of academic life. Many novels have presented nostalgic evocations of college days, but the campus novel in the usual modern sense dates from the 1950s: Mary McCarthy's The Groves of Academe (1952) and Kingsley Amis's Lucky Jim (1954) began a significant tradition in modern fiction including John Earth's Giles GoatBoy (1966), David Lodge's Changing Places (1975), and Robertson Davies's The Rebel Angels (1982). canon, a body of writings recognized by authority. Those books of holy scripture which religious leaders accept as genuine are canonical, as are those works of a literary author which scholars regard as authentic. The canon of a national literature is a body of writings especially approved by critics or anthologists and deemed suitable for academic study. Canonicity is the quality of being canonical. Verb: canonize. See also corpus, oeuvre. canto, a subdivision of an * EPIC or other narrative poem, equivalent to a chapter in a prose work. canzone [can-tsoh-ni] (plural -oni), a term covering various kinds of medieval Provencal and Italian * LYRIC poem. The most influential form was the *PETRARCHAN canzone, which has five or six *STANZAS and a shorter concluding *ENVOI (or half-stanza); the lengths of the stanzas (equal in each poem) ranged from seven to twenty lines. See also chanson. carnivalization, the liberating and subversive influence of popular humour on the literary tradition, according to the theory propounded by the Russian linguist Mikhail Bakhtin in his works Problems of Dostoevsky's Poetics (1929) and Rabelais and Us World (1965). Bakhtin argued that the overturning of hierarchies in popular carnival—its mingling of the sacred with the profane, the sublime with the ridiculous—lies behind carol 34 the most 'open' (*DIALOGIC or *POLYPHONIC) literary *GENRES, notably *MENIPPEAN SATIRE and the *NOVEL, especially since the *RENAISSANCE. Carnivalized literary forms allow alternative voices to dethrone the authority of official culture: Rabelais, for example, subverts the asceticism of the medieval Church by giving free rein to the bodily profanity of folk festivities. Adjective: carnivalistic or carnivalesque. carol, a song of religious rejoicing, usually associated with Christmas or Easter in the Christian calendar. In the Middle Ages, however, a carol could be a purely secular song of love or * SATIRE. A carol in this earlier sense is a song appropriate for a round dance, composed in regular rhyming *STANZAS with a *REFRAIN or *BURDEN: a common form was the four-line stanza rhyming aaab with a two-line burden rhyming bb. Caroline, belonging to the period 1625-49, when Charles I (Latin, Carolus) reigned as king of England, Scotland, and Ireland. This period includes the later *METAPHYSICAL POETS, the early work of Milton, and the so-called 'cavalier poets' Thomas Carew, Robert Herrick, Richard Lovelace, and Sir John Suckling. carpe diem [kar-pe dee-em], a quotation from Horace's Odes (I, xi) meaning 'seize the day', in other words 'make the best of the present moment'. A common theme or * MOTIF in European * LYRIC poetry, in which the speaker of a poem argues (often to a hesitant virgin) that since life is short, pleasure should be enjoyed while there is still time. The most celebrated examples in English are Marvell's To His Coy Mistress' (1681) and Herrick's To the Virgins, To Make Much of Time' (1648), which begins 'Gather ye rosebuds while ye may'. In some Christian poems and sermons, the carpe diem motif warns us to prepare our souls for death, rather than our bodies for bed. catachresis [kat-a-kree-sis], the misapplication of a word (e.g. disinterested for 'uninterested'), or the extension of a word's meaning in a surprising but strictly illogical * METAPHOR. In the second sense, a wellknown example from Hamlet is To take arms against a sea of troubles'. Adjective: catachretic. catalectic, lacking the final syllable or syllables expected in the regular pattern of a metrical verse line (see metre). The term is most often used of the common English *TROCHAIC line in which the optional final unstressed syllable (or * FEMININE ENDING) is not used. Of these lines from Shelley's To a Skylark', the second and fourth are catalectic: 35 Celtic Revival In the golden lightning Of the sunken sun, O'er which clouds are bright'ning, Thou dost float and run The first and third lines, which have the full number of syllables, are acatalectic. Unlike most English adjectives, 'catalectic' and its opposite 'acatalectic' usually follow the nouns they qualify: thus the last of Shelley's lines quoted above would be called a trochaic *TRIMETER catalectic. A line which is short by more than one syllable is brachycatalectic, while a line with one syllable too many is hypercatalectic. Noun: catalexis. See also acephalous, defective foot, truncation. catalogue verse, verse that records the names of several persons, places, or things in the form of a list. It is common in *EPIC poetry, where the heroes involved in a battle are often enumerated. Other types of catalogue verse record genealogical or geographical information. Walt Whitman created a new kind of catalogue verse in his Song of Myself (1855), which celebrates the huge variety of peoples, places, and occupations in the United States in the form of long lists. catastrophe, the final resolution or *DENOUEMENT of the plot in a *TRAGEDY, usually involving the death of the *PROTAGONIST. catharsis, the effect of'purgation' or 'purification' achieved by tragic drama, according to Aristotle's argument in his Poetics (4th century BCE). Aristotle wrote that a *TRAGEDY should succeed 'in arousing pity and fear in such a way as to accomplish a catharsis of such emotions'. There has been much dispute about his meaning, but Aristotle seems to be rejecting Plato's hostile view of poetry as an unhealthy emotional stimulant. His metaphor of emotional cleansing has been read as a solution to the puzzle of audiences' pleasure or relief in witnessing the disturbing events enacted in tragedies. Another interpretation is that it is the *PROTAGONIST'S guilt that is purged, rather than the audience's feeling of terror. Adjective: cathartic. causerie, the French word for a chat, sometimes used to denote an informal literary essay or article, after the Causeries du lundi—the famous weekly articles by the French literary critic Sainte-Beuve published in Parisian newspapers from 1849 to 1869. Celtic Revival, a term sometimes applied to the period of Irish cenac/e 36 literature in English (c.1885-1939) now more often referred to as the Irish Literary Revival or Renaissance. There are other similar terms: Celtic Renaissance, Celtic Dawn, and Celtic Twilight (the last famously mocked by James Joyce as the 'cultic twalette'). These Celtic titles are misleading as descriptions of the broader Irish Revival, but they indicate a significant factor in the early phase of the movement: Celticism involves an idea of Irishness based on fanciful notions of innate racial character outlined by the English critic Matthew Arnold in On the Study of Celtic Literature (1866), in which Celtic traits are said to include delicacy, charm, spirituality, and ineffectual sentimentality. This image of Irishness was adopted in part by W. B. Yeats in his attempt to create a distinctively Irish literature with his dreamy early verse and with The Celtic Twilight (1893), a collection of stories based on Irish folklore and fairy-tales. Apart from the poet 'AE' (George Russell), the other major figures in the Irish Literary Revival—Synge, O'Casey, and Joyce—had little or nothing to do with such Celticism. cenac/e [say-nahkl], a clique or *COTERIE of writers that assembles around a leading figure. A characteristic of the hero-worshipping culture of *ROMANTICISM, cmacles appeared in Paris from the 1820s onwards around Charles Nodier and, most famously, Victor Hugo. chanson [shahn-son], the French word for a song, also applied specifically to the kind of love song composed by the Provencal *TROUBADOURS of the late Middle Ages. This usually has five or six matching *STANZAS and a concluding *ENVOI (or half-stanza), and its subject is *COURTLY LOVE. The *METRES and *RHYME SCHEMES vary greatly, as the form was seen as a test of technical skills. See also canzone. chanson de geste [shahn-son de zhest] ('song of deeds'), a kind of shorter *EPIC poem in Old French, composed between the late llth century and the early 14th century, celebrating the historical and legendary exploits of Charlemagne (late 8th century) and other Frankish nobles in holy wars against the Saracens or in internal rebellions. The chansons de geste were sung by *JONGLEURS in * STROPHES of varying length known as laisses, usually composed of 10-syllable lines linked by *ASSONANCE (or by rhyme in later examples). About 80 of these poems survive, of which the most celebrated is the Chanson de Roland (late llth century). Some similar Cantares de gesta appeared in Spain, notably the Cantar de mio Cid, a Castilian epic of the 12th or 13th century. 37 cheville chant royal [shahn rwa-yal], a French verse form normally consisting of five *STANZAS of eleven 10-syllable lines rhyming ababccddede, followed by an * ENVOI (or half-stanza) rhyming ddede. The last line of the first stanza is repeated as a *REFRAIN at the end of the succeeding stanzas and of the envoi. The pattern is similar to that of the * BALLADE, but even more demanding. Most chants royaux were *ALLEGORIES on dignified subjects. They appeared in France from the time of Eustache Deschamps (late 14th century) to that of Clement Marot (early 16th century), but very rarely in English. chapbook, the name given since the 19th century to a kind of small, cheaply printed book or pamphlet hawked by chapmen (i.e. pedlars) from the 16th century to the early 19th century, and containing *BALLADS, fairy-tales, old *ROMANCES, accounts of famous criminals, and other popular entertainments. character, a personage in a * NARRATIVE or dramatic work (see characterization); also a kind of prose sketch briefly describing some recognizable type of person. As a minor literary *GENRE, the character originates with the Characters (late 3rd century BCE) of the Greek writer Theophrastus; it was revived in the 17th century, notably by Sir Thomas Overbury in his Characters (1614) and by La Bruyere in Les Caracteres (1688). See also humours, stock character, type. characterization, the representation of persons in *NARRATIVE and dramatic works. This may include direct methods like the attribution of qualities in description or commentary, and indirect (or 'dramatic') methods inviting readers to infer qualities from characters' actions, speech, or appearance. Since E. M. Forster's Aspects of the Novel (1927) a distinction has often been made between 'flat' and 'two-dimensional' characters, which are simple and unchanging, and 'round' characters, which are complex, 'dynamic' (i.e. subject to development), and less predictable. See also stock character, type. Chaucerian stanza, see rhyme royal. cheville, the French word for a plug, applied to any word or phrase of little semantic importance which is used by a poet to make up the required number of syllables in a metrical verse line (see metre). Chaucer used chevilles with shameless frequency, often plugging his lines with 'eek', 'for sothe', 'ywis', 'I gesse', T trowe', and similar interjections. chiasmus 38 chiasmus [ky-az-mus] (plural-mi), a *FIGURE OF SPEECH by which the order of the terms in the first of two parallel clauses is reversed in the second. This may involve a repetition of the same words ('Pleasure's a sin, and sometimes sin's a pleasure'—Byron), in which case the figure may be classified as *ANTIMETABOLE, or just a reversed parallel between two corresponding pairs of ideas, as in this line from Mary Leapor's 'Essay on Woman' (1751): Despised, if ugly; if she's fair, betrayed. The figure is especially common in 18th-century English poetry, but is also found in prose of all periods. It is named after the Greek letter chi (%), indicating a 'criss-cross' arrangement of terms. Adjective: chiastic. See also anadiplosis, antithesis, parallelism. Chicago critics, a group of critics associated with the University of Chicago, who contributed to the volume Critics and Criticisms: Ancient and Modern (1952) edited by the most prominent figure, R. S. Crane. Other members included W. R. Keast, Elder Olson, and Bernard Weinberg; Wayne C. Booth, the author of The Rhetoric of Fiction (1961), was also associated with the group. The Chicago critics were concerned with accounting for the variety of critical approaches to literature in terms of assumptions about the nature of literary works. They also emphasized the larger structures of literary works, following the example of Aristotle, whom they admired for basing his Poetics (4th century BCE) on actual examples rather than on preconceptions. Their interest in *PLOT and in the design of a work as a whole distinguishes them from the *NEW CRITICS, who concentrated on the study of *METAPHOR and *SYMBOL in * LYRIC verse. See also Aristotelian. chivalric romance [shi-val-rik], the principal kind of *ROMANCE found in medieval Europe from the 12th century onwards, describing (usually in verse) the adventures of legendary knights, and celebrating an idealized code of civilized behaviour that combines loyalty, honour, and *COURTLY LOVE. The emphasis on heterosexual love and courtly manners distinguishes it from the * CHANSON DE GKSTK and other kinds of *EPIC, in which masculine military heroism predominates. The most famous examples are the Arthurian romances recounting the adventures of Lancelot, Galahad, Gawain, and the other Round Table knights. These include the Lancelot (late 12th century) of Chretien de Troyes, the anonymous Sir Gawain and the Green Knight (late 14th century), and Malory's prose romance Le Morte Darthur (1485). 39 chronicle choral character, a term sometimes applied to a character in a play who, while participating in the action to some degree, also provides the audience with an ironic commentary upon it, thus performing a function similar to that of the *CHORUS in Greek *TRAGEDY. Two examples are Thersites in Shakespeare's Troilus and Cressida and Wong in Brecht's The Good Woman of Setzuan. choriamb [kor-i-am] or choriambus, a metrical unit combining one *TROCHEE (or 'choree') and one *IAMB into a single *FOOT of four syllables, with two stressed syllables enclosing two unstressed syllables, as in the word hullabaloo (or, in * QUANTITATIVE VERSE, two long syllables enclosing two shorts). It was used frequently in Greek dramatic choruses and lyrics, and by the Roman poet Horace, and later in some German verse. Usually, as in the *ASCLEPIAD, it is combined with other feet. A rare English example of choriambic verse is Swinburne's 'Choriambics' (1878), in which the line consists of one trochee, three choriambs, and one iamb: Ah, thy snow-coloured hands! once were they chains, mighty to bind fast; Now no blood in them burns, mindless of love, senseless of passions past. chorus, a group of singers distinct from the principal performers in a dramatic or musical performance; also the song or * REFRAIN that they sing. In classical Greek *TRAGEDY a chorus of twelve or fifteen masked performers would sing, with dancing movements, a commentary on the action of the play, interpreting its events from the standpoint of traditional wisdom. This practice appears to have been derived from the choral lyrics of religious festivals. The Greek tradition of choral *LYRIC includes the *DITHYRAMB, the *PAEAN, and the choral *ODES of Pindar. In some Elizabethan plays, like Shakespeare's Henry V, a single character called a chorus introduces the setting and action. Except in opera, the group chorus is used rarely in modern European drama: examples are T. S. Eliot's Murder in the Cathedral (1935) and Brecht's The Caucasian Chalk Circle (1948). The term has also been applied to certain groups of characters in novels, who view the main action from the standpoint of rural tradition, as in some works of George Eliot, Thomas Hardy, and William Faulkner. See also choral character. chrestomathy [kres-tom-a-thi], a collection or anthology of passages in prose or verse, often selected for purposes of literary or linguistic study. chronicle, a written record of events presented in order of time, and chronicle play 40 updated regularly over a prolonged period. The chroniclers of the Middle Ages, from the compilers of King Alfred's Anglo-Saxon Chronicle (9th to 12th centuries) onward,