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Newly updated for 2010, the Britannica Student Encyclopedia provides children with a broad collection of information to help them gain a better understanding of their world.

Designed for ages 7-12, this set provides more than 2,250 captivating articles across a wide range of subjects, making it the perfect resource for homework help, classroom assignments and everyday answers for curious minds. Children will immerse themselves in more than 2,700 photos, charts and tables; 1,200 maps and flags from across the globe; and special quiz features that engage and entertain young learners. - Builds a foundation for confident learning. - Knowledge is easily accessible with A-Z articles and index, encouraging students to research and develop essential reference skills. - Covers key school subjects - History, Science, Geography, the Arts and more! - New and revised articles to reflect the changing state of the world. - From Beijing to Africa, ice skating to memory and Pablo Picasso to the Williams sisters - explore a variety of topics in this comprehensive set. - Timelines, 'More to explore' and 'Did you know?' features intrigue children and encourage them to keep learning, questioning and wondering.

Encyclopædia Britannica
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Great book and very nice layout! Not boring to read and many images are available.
29 December 2015 (13:42) 
I can't wait to read this! Lots of information, just looking at the preview and already got me so antsy hehe
14 April 2020 (10:16) 
Good book.iloved it a lot. Very informative
02 September 2020 (09:05) 
hashem hoseini
i never seen better your work ....an ultimate good information ...the complete collection of every subject....your nice...thanks and thanks
04 June 2021 (21:44) 

책에 대한 리뷰를 작성하거나 귀하의 독서 경험을 공유할 수 있습니다. 다른 독자들이 귀하가 읽은 책에 대한 의견에 귀를 기울일 것입니다. 개인적으로 책이 마음에 들었거나 그렇지 않았거나 정직하고 상세한 호평은 다른 독자들이 자신에게 적합한 책을 찾는데 도움이 됩니다.
Table of Contents
Volume 1 ..........................................A
Volume 2...........................................B
Volume 3 ..........................................C
Volume 4......................................D, E
Volume 5 ......................................F, G
Volume 6 ......................................H, I
Volume 7 ..................................J, K, L
Volume 8 .........................................M
Volume 9.....................................N, O
Volume 10.........................................P
Volume 11 ...................................Q, R
Volume 12 .........................................S
Volume 13.........................................T
Volume 14 ...................................U, V
Volume 15..........................W, X, Y, Z
Volume 16 ..............................INDEX

Volume 1

Chicago • London • New Delhi • Paris • Seoul • Sydney • Taipei • Tokyo

Mary Rose McCudden
Michael J. Anderson
Andrea R. Field
Heather M. Campbell
Sherman Hollar
Sandra Langeneckert
Gene O. Larson
Robert M. Lewis
Sarah Forbes Orwig
Amy Tikkanen
Joan Hibler
Sylvia Wallace, Director
Glenn Jenne, Supervisor
Julian Ronning, Supervisor
Laura M. Browning, Copy Editor
John Cunningham, Copy Editor
Michael Ray, Copy Editor
Sue Schumer, Copy Editor
Dennis Skord, Supervisor
Carmen-Maria Hetrea, Director
Paul Cranmer, Retrieval Specialist
Mansur Abdullah, Classifier
Noelle Borge, Content Analyst
Wang-fai Wong, Content Analyst

Steven N. Kapusta, Director
Carol A. Gaines, Composition Supervisor
Cate Nichols, Composition Coordinator
Lara C. Mondae, Designer
Susana Darwin, Associate Managing
Kathy Nakamura, Photo Department
Karen M. Koblik, Senior Photo Editor
Nicole DiGiacomo, Photo Editor
David Alexovich, Illustration Manager
Thomas J. Spanos, Le; ad Illustrator
Christine McCabe, Senior Illustrator
Jerry Kraus, Senior Illustrator
Katherine D. Burgess, Illustrator
Claudiu Varan, Illustrator
Judie Anderson, Fable and Mythology
Media Asset Management
Jeannine Deubel, Manager
Kimberly Cleary, Media Assets Supervisor
Kurt Heintz, Senior Technician
Nadia Venegas, Assistant Media
Michael Nutter, Senior Map Editor

Marilyn L. Barton, Senior Coordinator
Steven Bosco, Director
Bruce Walters, Senior Systems Coordinator
Mark Wiechec, Principal Engineer
Lisa S. Braucher, Data Editor
Kim Gerber, Director

Jacob E. Safra,
Chairman of the Board
Jorge Aguilar-Cauz,
Michael Ross,
Senior Vice President Corporate
Dale H. Hoiberg,
Senior Vice President and Editor
Marsha Mackenzie,
Managing Editor and Director of
Anita Wolff,
Executive Editor

2010 Britannica Student Encyclopedia
Copyright © 2010 by Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc.
Britannica, Encyclopædia Britannica, and the thistle logo are registered trademarks of Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc.
All rights reserved. Copyright under International Copyright Union
No part of this work may be reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying,
recording, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher.
Library of Congress Control Number: 2009904642
International Standard Book Number: 978-1-61535-363-7
eBook edition January, 2010

How to go to your page
This eBook contains VL[WHHQvolumes. Each volume has its own page
numbering scheme, consisting of a volume number and a page number,
separated by a colon.

Britannica may be accessed at http://www.britannica.com on the Internet. For example, to go to page 5 of Volume 1, type V:5 in the "page #" box
at the top of the screen and click "Go." To go to page 5 of Volume 2,
type V2:5… and so forth.

How to Use the Britannica
Student Encyclopedia
The 16 volumes of the Britannica Student Encyclopedia from
Encyclopædia Britannica contain articles on more than 2,200 topics.
The articles are arranged in alphabetical order from
“Aardvark” in Volume 1

to “Zuni” in Volume 15.

The last volume is the index.
Getting Started
There are several ways to find the information you
If you are looking for a particular title you can go
to the volume that contains articles that start with
the same letter and search for your topic there. For
example, if you want to read the article on the
American Revolution, you can go to the A volume. The words at the top of each page tell you
which article is on that page. When you are looking for an article you can page through quickly by
looking at those words.
Sometimes there are different ways of naming the
same subject. A feature called a title cross-reference
can help guide you to the title that we have used.
For example, if you look for an article called “Car”
in the C volume you will find a note that says


see Automobile.

Then you can look for the Automobile article in
the A volume.
You can also search for your topic in the index. If
there is an article on your topic the index will tell
you which volume and page number to go to to
find that article. Sometimes a topic does not have
its own article, but you can still find information
about that topic in the encyclopedia. The index
can tell you where you can find that information.
For example, if you look up the topic “dragon” in
the index you will see that there is information
about dragons in the article called “Animals,
Legendary” even though there is no article on


How to Use the Britannica Student Encyclopedia


Article Features
In addition to the text of the articles, there are
many special features that add information.

More to explore
Flower • Marigold • Plant • Sunflower



kept slaves of their own. These slaves
worked on large farms that supplied
food for the army and the royal court.

Most articles have at least one photograph, illustration, or map. Many have more than one.
At the end of most articles, there is a feature called
“More to explore.” This feature tells you which
articles to go to to get more information about the
topic or about something that was mentioned in
the article.
“Did You Know?” boxes provide quick facts about
many different articles throughout the set.

The empire grew larger and stronger
throughout the 1700s. After Great Britain and other countries outlawed the
slave trade in the 1800s Dahomey
started selling palm oil instead of slaves.
At the end of the 1800s France conquered Dahomey. The French combined
it with other regions to form a colony
that was also called Dahomey. This
colony gained its independence in 1960.
It kept the name of Dahomey until
1975, when it became Benin.

More to explore
Benin • Slavery

Daisies are
which means
that they
bloom year
after year
without having
to be

Daisies are flowers with flat petals that
surround a round center. Daisies belong
to the aster family, which also includes
chrysanthemums, dahlias, marigolds,
sunflowers, and zinnias.

Daisies are
which means
that they
bloom year
after year
without having
to be

Common types of daisy include the
oxeye daisy; the English, or true, daisy;
and the Shasta daisy. These daisies grow
in Europe, North America, and other
parts of the world. Oxeye and English
daisies grow in gardens and in the wild.
The Shasta daisy is mainly a garden
Daisy plants often grow to about 2 to 3
feet (61 to 91 centimeters) tall. Two
types of flower make up each flower
head. Ray flowers are what people call

People often use colorful daisies to brighten
flower arrangements.

petals. The ray flowers may be long or
short. Tiny disk flowers make up the
center. The center may be flat or
rounded. Depending on the type of
daisy, the flower heads are from 1 to 4
inches (2.5 to 10 centimeters) wide.
Oxeye and Shasta daisies have a ring of
white ray flowers around a bright yellow
center. The ray flowers of the English
daisy may be white, purple, pink, or red.

More to explore
Flower • Marigold • Plant • Sunflower


(2002 estimate)

Dakar is the capital of Senegal, a country in West Africa. It is the largest city in

Certain articles have additional special features.



Africa is the world’s second largest continent. More than 50 countries make up
the continent. More than one eighth of
the world’s population lives there.

Asia through eastern Africa. In Africa
they are deep, long, narrow valleys.

The world’s longest river, the Nile, flows
through northern Africa. The conti22
nent’s other long rivers include the
Congo in central Africa, the Niger in the
Africa’s landscape is varied. The northwest, and the Zambezi in the south.
ern and western parts of the continent
Eastern Africa has a chain of lakes
are generally lower and more level than
the eastern and southern areas. Africa is known as the great lakes.
the oldest continent. Therefore most
TheofWest African country of Cameroon
The from
is crossed
midway by the
its mountains are not as high as those
its name
the Rio
dos CamaThis means
most of
other continents. They have beenrões
of Shrimps),
the name
down over millions of years by wind
and Africa—the
gave to themiddle
Wouri portion—lies
River. The within
the tropics, an area where it is hot yearwater.
capital is Yaoundé.
184In the
lowlands near the equator,
falls throughout
the year. To the
Africa’s most striking feature is a series
is bordered
by Nigeria,
of great rifts, or troughs, in the east
north and south of this rainy area are
Chad, the Central African Republic,
known as the Rift Valley system. These
large regions that have a rainy season
Republic of the Congo, Gabon, and
rifts span two continents, from western
followed by a dry season. It is very hot
Equatorial Guinea. The Atlantic Ocean
lies to the west. Mountains run through The state of Connecticut was
lands is called the Litchfield Hills. They
the north and west. The country has hotnamed for the Connecticut
include Mount Frissell, which is the
temperatures year-round.
state’s highest point at 2,380 feet (725
River. Algonquian Indians called the
People gather to buy and sell goods at a
meters). The central lowland includes
river Quinnehtukqut,
market in Maroua, Cameroon.
the fertile Connecticut River valley. The
Rain forests are in the south. Mangroves
the long tidal river.” Connecticut is
eastern highlands are low, wooded hills
grow along the coasts and rivers. Monnicknamedpeople
the Constitution
State or traditional
follow Christianity
with many rivers.
keys live in the forests. Elephants,because its early settlers wrote a set of
religions. The north is mostly Muslim.
baboons, and antelope live in the laws to govern themselves that later proFacts About
wooded grasslands of the north. vided ideas for the U.S. Constitution.
Cameroon’s economy is based on farmAt the time of the first U.S. census, in
Those laws,
as thecrops
The main
include cassava,
1790, almost all of Connecticut’s people
The ethnic groups of Cameroon include
Orders of sugarcane,
in sorghum.
were English. In the 1800s Irish, French
the Fang, the Bamileke, the Duala,1638
and and covered such issues as elecThe country also produces petroleum
Canadian, Italian, Polish, and other
the Fulani. English and French aretions,
the powers of officials, and taxation.
(oil), lumber, and cocoa for export.
official languages, but people speakThe
capital of Connecticut is Hartford. European immigrants settled in the
state. Today more than four fifths of
other languages. The majority of the
Humans have lived in what is nowConnecticut’s residents are of European
(2005 estimate)
heritage. African Americans and HispanConnecticut
is the southernmost
Bantu peopleNew
settled inics
theeach make up about 9 percent of the
A pair of giraffes is at home near Mount Kilimanjaro in Tanzania.
England state.
is bordered
the west,by
the Fulanipopulation.
The state’s Asian American
chusetts on the north, Rhode Island on
183,569 sq mi
in the north. In the 1470s the Portuguese
and Native American groups are small.
(475,442 sq km)
the east, New York on the west, and the
established sugar plantations and a slave
Long Island Sound on the south.
has a large population for
1800s. After World War I Cameroon
was As a result, it is one of the counits size.
Form of
Connecticut has highlands in the west
try’s In
most crowded states. Most of its
divided into French and British zones.
and east with a lowland in the middle.
1960 the French zone became the people live in cities or towns. BridgeThe northern part of the western highport,
is the largest city.
Major cities
independent republic of Cameroon.
Douala, Yaoundé,
Other large cities are Hartford, New
Garoua, Maroua,
More to explore
Haven, and Stamford.

Land and Climate



Facts About

The continents, countries, U.S. states, and
Canadian provinces have colored backgrounds to
tell you what kind of unit it is. The continents are
purple, the countries are yellow, and the states and
provinces are green. These articles also have fact
boxes. The fact boxes contain basic information,
including population and area figures.
Some of the countries also have timelines of major
events in the country’s history.
The U.S presidents have timelines of major events
in the lives of each president.

Bush, George


Bush, George

Real estate, finance, and the insurance
industry are major parts of Connecticut’s economy. Hartford is known as the
Insurance Capital of the World because
of the many insurance companies with
offices there. Manufacturing businesses
in Connecticut produce jet aircraft
engines, computer equipment, chemicals, machinery, and other goods. Hart-

After serving two terms as vice president, George Bush became the 41st
president of the United States in 1989.
The main event of Bush’s presidency
was the Persian Gulf War.

Bush is born
in Milton,

Early Life

George Herbert Walker Bush was born
on June 12, 1924, in Milton, Massachusetts. His family later moved to Greenwich, Connecticut. George was the
second of five children born to Prescott
Sheldon Bush and Dorothy Walker
Bush. His father was a banker and later a
U.S. senator.
George Bush was the 41st president of the

June 12,

United States.

In 1942 Bush joined the U.S. Naval
Reserve. As a Navy pilot, he flew many
missions in the Pacific during World
War II. In 1945 Bush married Barbara
Pierce. After the war he attended Yale
University and earned a degree in economics. Bush then moved to Texas,

(2005 estimate)
183,569 sq mi
(475,442 sq km)

where he helped start three companies
dealing in oil and drilling equipment.

Political Career
As a member of the Republican Party,
Bush ran for the U.S. Senate in 1964

Bush becomes
the head of
the Central

Bush is born
in Milton,
June 12,


Bush is elected
to the U.S.
House of


Bush loses the
election to Bill

Bush is elected

Bush is elected
vice president
under President



The United
States and
allies defeat
Iraq in the
Persian Gulf


the Cent

Bush is elected
to the U.S.
House of




Acropolis means “city at the
top” in Greek.
(See Acropolis.)
Airships float in the air like
balloons, but they have engines
and can be steered.
(See Airship.)
Alchemists were people who
were famous for trying to turn
lead into gold.
(See Alchemy.)
Almonds are commonly called
nuts, but they are actually
(See Almond.)
At least six types of amoeba
are found in human beings.
(See Amoeba.)
Knights in Europe once wore
armor made of large steel or
iron plates.
(See Armor.)





Although aardvarks look like anteaters, they
are actually related to elephants, manatees,
and dugongs.

The unusual mammal called the aardvark was named by South Africans in
the early 1800s. In the local language,
Afrikaans, “aardvark” means “earth pig.”
This name aptly describes a large,
heavily built animal with thin hair and
short, stumpy legs. The scientific name
of the aardvark is Orycteropus afer.

Aaron, Hank
On April 8, 1974, major league baseball
star Hank Aaron hit his 715th home
run. That home run broke Babe Ruth’s
record of 714, which had stood since
1935. Aaron broke several other batting
records as well. Because he hit so well he
was sometimes called Hammerin’ Hank.

Early Life
Henry Louis Aaron was born on February 5, 1934, in Mobile, Alabama. Even
as a young boy Hank hoped to play professional baseball. At age 16 he began
playing shortstop with the semiprofessional Mobile Black Bears baseball team.


Aaron began his professional career in
1952. He played a few months as a
shortstop with the Indianapolis Clowns
Aardvarks live in dry places in Africa
south of the Sahara Desert. The aardvark of the Negro American League. In 1954
can reach a length of 6 feet (1.8 meters).
Its head has huge donkeylike ears, a long
snout, and drooping eyelids with long
lashes. During the day aardvarks sleep in
underground burrows. At night they dig
underground for their favorite food,
termites. They break open the termites’
nests with their massive, flattened claws.
Then they suck up the insects with their
long tongue.
Female aardvarks give birth to one baby
per year. After a few weeks the baby
begins to follow its mother around. It
goes off on its own before it is 1 year
old. Aardvarks can live for more than 20
years in zoos.

Hank Aaron



Aaron joined the Boston Braves of the
National League, where he played
mostly as an outfielder.
In 1955 Aaron established himself as a
star. He had a .314 batting average, 27
home runs, and 106 runs batted in
(RBI). In 1957 he helped lead the
Braves to their first World Series title.
The Braves moved to Atlanta, Georgia,
at the end of 1965, and Aaron moved
with them. After the 1974 baseball season, he was traded to the Milwaukee
Brewers of the American League.

Aaron retired after the 1976 season with
a lifetime batting average of .305. He
was elected to the Baseball Hall of Fame
on January 13, 1982. At the time he held
several career batting records, including
755 home runs, 1,477 extra-base hits,
and 2,297 RBIs. His home run record
was broken in 2007 by Barry Bonds.

The abacus is an ancient device to help
solve math problems.

The abacus was probably invented in
Mesopotamia by an ancient group of
people known as Sumerians. The
ancient Egyptians, Greeks, Romans, and
Chinese all used the abacus as well.

Baseball • Ruth, Babe

In about AD 700 the Hindus invented a
numeral system that made adding with
written numbers as easy as adding on an
abacus. The Arabs soon adopted this
system, and they introduced it into
Europe more than 1,000 years ago. As
written calculations became easier, the
abacus passed out of use in Europe. But
it continues to be used by people in
China, Japan, and the Middle East.



Long before the invention of the electronic calculator or the computer, people
counted and did calculations with a
device called an abacus. On this instrument, calculations are made with beads,
or counters, instead of numerals. The
beads are arranged on wires stretched
across a frame. Each wire represents the
ones, tens, hundreds, and so on.

Some abbreviations are official, such as
the codes that the U.S. Postal Service
uses for the states. Others are more
informal. People often use the abbrevia-

More to explore

An abbreviation is a shortened form of a
word or a phrase. People use abbreviations to save time and space. People are
always creating new abbreviations, and
old ones are sometimes forgotten.

An abacus
expert can
add numbers
almost as fast
as a person
with a pocket





Some Common Abbreviations

anno Domini (in the year of
the Lord)


ante meridiem (before noon)
before Christ
Celsius, centigrade
compact disc read-only

cm, m, km
g, kg

centimeter, meter, kilometer
digital videodisc
foot, feet
gram, kilogram
I Owe You
miles per hour
numero (number)
post meridiem (after noon)
Saint, Street
versus (against)

tion ad for the word advertising, for
There are a few different kinds of abbreviations. People often abbreviate words
by writing only the first letter, one or a
few other letters in the word, and a
period. For instance, the word teaspoon
is abbreviated as “tsp.”
People abbreviate phrases by writing
only the first letter of each word. This
type of abbreviation is usually written in
capital letters with no periods between
them. For example, the abbreviation for
“as soon as possible” is ASAP.
One of the most common types of
abbreviation is called an acronym. Acronyms combine the first letters of a group
of words to create a new word. NASA,
which stands for National Aeronautics
and Space Administration, is an acronym. It is pronounced “NA-suh,” not

U.S. Postal Codes

District of Columbia


North Carolina
North Dakota
New Hampshire
New Jersey
New Mexico


New York
Rhode Island
South Carolina
South Dakota
West Virginia



Some acronyms become so common
that they begin to be used as real words
rather than as abbreviations. The word
laser started out as an acronym. Its full
scientific meaning is “light amplification
by stimulated emission of radiation.”

Abernathy, Ralph

tin Luther King, Jr. The two men began
fighting laws that kept blacks and whites
One such law forced blacks and whites
to sit in separate parts of buses. In 1955
Abernathy and King organized a protest
of the Montgomery bus system. Blacks
refused to ride the buses until the seating rules were changed. This protest
helped start the civil rights movement.
In 1957 King and Abernathy started the
Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC). The SCLC was an organization that worked to win equal rights
for blacks. After King was murdered in
1968, Abernathy became president of
the SCLC.

Ralph Abernathy

Abernathy resigned as president of the
SCLC in 1977. Then he went back to
being a pastor in Atlanta. He died there
on April 17, 1990.

More to explore

Ralph Abernathy was a leader of the civil
Civil Rights Movement • King, Martin
rights movement in the United States.
Luther, Jr.
He worked closely with Martin Luther
King, Jr.
Ralph David Abernathy was born on
March 11, 1926, in Linden, Alabama. In
1948 he became a minister in the Baptist
church. In 1950 he graduated from Alabama State University with a degree in
mathematics. Then he studied sociology
at Atlanta University in Atlanta, Georgia.
In 1951 Abernathy became pastor of the
First Baptist Church in Montgomery,
Alabama. A few years later he met Mar-

(2005 estimate)
urban area,

Abidjan is the largest city of Côte d’Ivoire
in West Africa. It was the country’s
capital until 1983. Then Yamoussoukro
was made the capital. Even after that





lived in what are now New England and
eastern Canada. They included the Passamaquoddy, the Penobscot, and the

The coastal city of Abidjan is an important
business center of Côte d’Ivoire.

date, however, Abidjan remained the site
of most government functions.
Abidjan is located in the southern part
of the country. It has a port even though
it is separated from the Atlantic Ocean
by a sandbar. The Vridi Canal connects
the port to the sea.
Because of the port, Abidjan is a center
of West African trade. Cocoa, coffee,
timber, bananas, pineapples, and fish are
shipped from the port. The city also
manufactures beer, soap, matches, and
Abidjan became the capital of the
French colony of Ivory Coast in 1934.
Ivory Coast became the independent
country of Côte d’Ivoire in 1960.
Abidjan remained the capital.

The Abnaki hunted animals such as
bear, deer, and moose in the forests.
They fished in lakes and rivers. The
coastal tribes caught lobsters and gathered oysters and clams. The southern
tribes planted fields of corn, squash, and
The Abnaki generally lived in small
bands of related families. Bands lived
part of the year in permanent villages
and part of the year in hunting camps.
Their houses were cone-shaped wigwams made from a wooden frame covered with bark.
In the early 1600s Europeans began
arriving in Abnaki territory. Most were
traders who offered metal tools and
other European goods in exchange for
furs. But the Europeans also brought
diseases such as smallpox that killed
tribespeople by the thousands.

More to explore
Côte d’Ivoire • Yamoussoukro

The Abnaki (or Abenaki) were a group
Abnaki Native Americans perform a tradiof Native American tribes who originally tional dance in Vermont.

Abolitionist Movement


After the American Revolution (1775–
83) the Americans took over much of
the tribes’ territory. Without land, the
Abnaki could no longer live in their
traditional way. Some managed to
change their way of life and survive. In
the late 20th century about 1,000
Abnaki lived in Quebec, Canada. More
than 6,000 Abnaki lived in the United

More to explore
Native Americans

In the late 1700s people who were
opposed to slavery began a movement to
abolish, or end, the practice. This was
called the abolitionist movement. Followers of the movement were known as
Europeans had begun using Africans as
slaves in the late 1400s. After Europeans
discovered the Americas they set up
colonies there. Soon many Africans were
being shipped to the Americas to work
on the sugar and cotton plantations in
the colonies.
In the 1600s certain people in the British colonies of North America condemned slavery on religious grounds.
There were few other protests, however,
until the 1700s. Slowly but steadily,
more and more people became opposed
to the idea of holding other human
beings as private property.

An antislavery meeting is pictured in London, England, in 1840.

Antislavery Efforts Around
the World
The first formal organization to emerge
in the abolitionist movement was the
Abolition Society, founded in 1787 in
Britain. By 1807 Britain had abolished
the slave trade with its colonies. By 1833
all slaves in the British colonies in the
Western Hemisphere were freed. Other
countries in Europe soon followed this
example. France outlawed the slave trade
by 1819, and in 1848 slavery was
banned in all French colonies.
Slavery was abolished country by country in South America. In Chile the first
antislavery law was passed as early as
1811. Slavery finally ended in South
America when Brazil passed an antislavery law in 1888.

United States
In the United States the slave trade was
officially abolished in 1807, but the
smuggling of slaves continued until the
Civil War. As cotton plantations devel-



Abolitionist Movement


oped in the South, the demand for
slaves increased. The Southern states
thus supported slavery. In contrast, by
1804 all of the states north of Maryland
had abolished slavery. The North
became the center of the abolitionist
movement in the United States.

An abolitionist
named John
Brown stole
weapons from
the U.S. government in
1859. He
wanted to start
a slave rebellion. He was
killed but
became an

The best-known leader of this movement was William Lloyd Garrison. He
founded the American Anti-Slavery
Society in 1833. The U.S. abolitionists
did not always agree about how to end
slavery, however. Some wanted the government to pass laws to end slavery.
Others tried to help individual slaves
gain their freedom. They established the
Underground Railroad to help escaping
slaves reach places of safety in the North
or in Canada.

Cassius Marcellus Clay worked to end slavery even though he was from a slaveholding family in the South.

slaves were mistreated. The book became
extraordinarily popular.

In November 1860 Abraham Lincoln
was elected president of the United
The abolitionist movement gained
States. Lincoln opposed the spread of
strength as more and more people
learned about the evils of slavery. People slavery. The South felt threatened. Over
were disgusted by the cruelty of the slave the next three months a series of Southhunters who brought escaped slaves back ern states separated from the United
to their owners. Harriet Beecher Stowe’s States and formed the Confederacy. This
led to the American Civil War (1861–
novel Uncle Tom’s Cabin (1852) pre65). During the fighting, in 1863, Linsented powerful descriptions of how
coln issued the Emancipation
Proclamation. This document freed all
slaves in the Confederate states. In 1865
the Confederacy was defeated. Then
slavery was abolished in the United
States by the 13th Amendment to the

More to explore

William Lloyd Garrison

American Civil War • Brown, John
• Emancipation Proclamation • Lincoln,
Abraham • Slavery • Stowe, Harriet
Beecher • Underground Railroad



Aboriginal peoples, or aborigines, are
groups of people who have lived in one
area for many thousands of years. In the
past, aborigines lived in areas far from
other cultures. They were unknown
until outsiders came into their lands.
Today there are only a few places left in
the world where outsiders have not
affected aboriginal cultures. Aborigines
still live in the rain forests of South
America, on the island of New Guinea,
and in the mountains of Malaysia and
the Philippines. They have kept many of
their original ways of life.

place to place to find food and water.
They lived in caves or built short-term
shelters from branches, bark, and animal
skins. The men fished and hunted for
animals. The women gathered plants,
eggs, and other food.
The Aborigines’ lives changed when
Europeans arrived in Australia more
than 200 years ago. The Europeans
forced the Aborigines to move off their
land and to change their way of life.
Many Aborigines died defending their
land. Many others died from diseases
brought by the Europeans.
Today Aborigines live in all parts of Australia and do all kinds of work. But
many Aborigines are poor. They do not
have the same opportunities as most
other Australians.

The Australian Aborigines are probably
the best-known aboriginal society. They
came to Australia more than 40,000
years ago. They still live there today.

More to explore

Australian Aborigines were originally
hunter-gatherer tribes that moved from


Australia • Culture

Abraham is an important figure in the
Jewish, Christian, and Islamic religions.
He is considered to be the patriarch, or
founding father, of the nation of Israel.
The story of Abraham is told in Genesis,
the first book of the Bible. In modern
times archaeologists have found ancient
clay tablets that tell more of the story.

An Australian Aborigine stands before a
large rock known as Uluru/Ayers Rock.
Parts of the rock and the land around it are
sacred to the Aborigines of the area.

According to the Bible, Abraham came
from Ur in Mesopotamia (now Iraq).
His people were sheepherders who
moved from place to place. About 4,000
years ago they settled near Haran, in





descendants of Abraham’s son Ishmael.
In the Koran, the holy book of Islam, it
is said that Abraham and Ishmael built
the Kaaba. The Kaaba, a shrine in
Mecca, Saudi Arabia, is the holiest place
in the Islamic world.

More to explore
Bible • Christianity • Islam • Judaism
• Koran • Mecca • Mesopotamia


Christians, Jews, and Muslims all see Abrasee Crow.
ham as an important religious figure. A
painting shows Abraham during his journey
to Canaan.

what is now Turkey. There God
instructed Abraham to leave his people
and move to a new land. Abraham
At age 75 he journeyed to Canaan (the
land that is now Israel) with his wife,
Sarah, and others. God told him that he
and his children would inherit that land.
At first Abraham and Sarah thought
they were too old to have children.
Abraham’s first child, Ishmael, was born
to a servant of Sarah’s. But Isaac was
born later to Sarah. The Bible says that
Abraham died at the age of 175.

Abu Bakr
Abu Bakr was an adviser to the prophet
Muhammad, the founder of Islam. After
Muhammad’s death, Abu Bakr took
charge of the Islamic world. He is
known as the first caliph.

Isaac inherited the land of Canaan. After
his death the land went to his son,
Jacob. God changed Jacob’s name to
Israel. His descendants were the Jewish
people. In Christianity, Abraham is considered to be the father of all who
believe in God. Abraham is important to Abu Bakr (second from left) was an
Muslims as well. They are said to be the important Islamic leader.

Abu Dhabi


Abu Bakr was born in the Arabian town
of Mecca (now in Saudi Arabia), which
was also the birthplace of Muhammad.
His daughter !A#ishah became one of
Muhammad’s wives.
While Muhammad was dying, he called
upon Abu Bakr to lead prayers and pilgrimages in his place. By that time
Muhammad was more than the religious
leader of the Islamic lands; he was their
political ruler as well. After Muhammad
died in 632, Abu Bakr ruled as caliph.
Caliph means “successor” (one who
comes afterward). The Islamic lands
were called the Caliphate.
As caliph, Abu Bakr fought wars against
Arabian tribes who rebelled against him.
He soon brought the tribes of Arabia
under Muslim rule. Abu Bakr then sent
armies into what are now Syria and Iraq.
This began a series of conquests that
spread Islam far beyond Arabia. Abu
Bakr died in 634.

More to explore
Caliphate • Islam • Mecca
• Muhammad

Abu Dhabi
(2007 estimate)

The Sultan Zayed Mosque in Abu Dhabi
was named for a longtime ruler of the
United Arab Emirates. The sultan was buried in the mosque when he died in 2004.

tal of Abu Dhabi kingdom, the largest of
the seven states.
The city of Abu Dhabi occupies most of
a small triangular island in the Persian
Gulf. The island is connected to the
mainland by a short bridge.
Local tribesmen settled Abu Dhabi in
1761. Through most of its history the
town remained small and undeveloped.
This changed when rich oil fields were
discovered in Abu Dhabi in 1958. Oil
revenues were used to modernize the
town. Electricity, running water, and a
central sewage system were installed.
Modern buildings and a new port were
built. With modernization, the population grew.
The United Arab Emirates gained independence from Great Britain in 1971.
Abu Dhabi became the permanent capital of the federation in the early 1990s.

Abu Dhabi is the capital of the United
Arab Emirates, a union of Arab states on More to explore
the Arabian Peninsula. It is also the capi- United Arab Emirates





(2006 census),
Federal Capital

Abuja is the capital of the African country of Nigeria. It was built in the 1980s
to replace the crowded coastal city of
Lagos as the capital.
Abuja is located near the center of Nigeria in an area called the Federal Capital
Territory. It is about 300 miles (480
kilometers) northeast of Lagos. The city
is built on the grass-covered Chukuku
Hills. The climate is cooler and less
humid than that of Lagos.
Abuja is divided into two zones. The
central area contains the government
buildings. The other zone provides
housing, shopping facilities, and other
services for the people who live there.

The government started planning the
new city of Abuja in 1976. It took more
than 10 years to build the city, but the
population grew even before it was finished. Abuja officially became the capital
in 1991.

More to explore

(2003 estimate)

Accra is the capital and largest city of the
West African country of Ghana. Its
name comes from the word nkran in the
Akan language. This refers to the black
ants that thrive in the area. Accra is situated on the Gulf of Guinea.
Accra is the site of Ghana’s main government offices. It is also the economic
center of Ghana. It contains the head
offices of all the country’s large banks
and trading firms. The city also has large
open markets. Its main products are
processed food, lumber, and textiles.

The Nigerian presidential palace is located
in the hills of the country’s capital, Abuja.

The city of Accra was formed in 1877.
By that time the British had gained control of the whole area. It became known
as the colony of the Gold Coast. Accra
was the capital of the colony. The modern city of Accra was carefully planned
and laid out between 1920 and 1930.

Acid and Base


When the Gold Coast gained independence as Ghana in 1957, Accra
remained the capital.

More to explore

Acid and Base
Acids and bases are two related groups of
chemicals. They are important to living
things and have many uses in industry.

Some acids are found in food. They
include acetic acid in vinegar, lactic acid
in milk, and citric acid in lemons. They
often have a sour taste. Other acids are
found in animals. The stomach makes
an acid that helps break down food.
Some acids do not come from living
things. These can be so strong that they
can corrode, or break down, metals.
They should not be tasted or touched.
Sulfuric acid is one example. It is used to
make fertilizers, dyes, drugs, explosives,
and certain batteries. When an acid is
dissolved in water the result is called an
acidic solution.

and artificial fibers. When water is combined with a base the result is called a
basic, or alkaline, solution.

Acid-Base Reactions
When acids and bases are combined
they produce water and compounds
called salts. They have a salty taste and
none of the characteristic properties of
either acids or bases. The reactions
between acids and bases can be quite
strong. One result is that they can
quickly produce gases. This is why baking soda is useful for baking pastries and
cakes. When it is combined with an acid
such as lemon juice or sour cream in a
dough mixture, it releases gases that
make the dough rise.

Identifying Acids and Bases
Acids and bases make some materials
change color. A special kind of paper
called litmus paper is one type of mate-

Bases may feel slippery in water. Some
are used in foods or medicines. These
often have a bitter taste. Examples of
bases include baking soda and milk of
magnesia. Other bases are used in
manufacturing. These are too strong to
be tasted or touched. Sodium hydroxide,
or lye, breaks down animal and plant
tissues. It is used to make soap, paper,

A strip of litmus paper shows
that a solution contains an acid.
If the solution contained a base
the paper would have turned



Acid Rain


rial that does this. An acid in water turns
litmus paper red. A base in water turns
the paper blue. A neutral substance,
such as pure water, gives litmus paper a
color midway between red and blue.

Acid Rain
Acid rain is a form of air pollution.
When coal and petroleum are burned in
automobiles, electric power plants, and
factories, they release certain harmful
gases into the air. These gases combine
with the oxygen and water in the air.
When the water in the air comes down
as rain, sleet, hail, or snow, it carries
with it these gases. This is known as acid
rain. Acid rain is very damaging to all
life forms.
Acid rain can pollute lakes and streams,
killing the fish and other organisms that
live in them. Acid rain also damages
various kinds of vegetation, including
farm crops and trees. In addition, acid

rain corrodes, or wears away, surfaces of
buildings and other structures.
By the early 1990s tens of thousands of
lakes had been destroyed by acid rain.
The problem has been most severe in
Norway, Sweden, and Canada. Damage
from acid rain is not limited to the
countries that produce the pollution.
This is because winds carry the pollution
around the globe.
Despite much discussion between many
countries, there is still no clear solution
to the problem. The chief reason is that
it is expensive to control the pollution.
However, since the damage from acid
rain to the environment is permanent,
the environmental costs are greater.

Most teenagers and some adults experience a skin condition called acne. Some
cases of acne are very mild and go away
without leaving any signs. Others are
more serious and may cause scarring.
Boys are more likely than girls to have
severe acne.
Lesions (abnormal bumps or spots) on
the skin are the main symptom of acne.
Acne lesions are commonly known as
pimples. They occur especially on the
face and neck.

Acid rain can be very damaging to trees
and other plants. The branch on the left has
been affected by acid rain. It looks much
different than the branch on the right.

Acne is caused by changes inside the
body that affect the skin. These changes
occur naturally as a boy or girl reaches
puberty, or matures. At that time the
body produces more of chemicals called



cated lotions or creams that can be put
on the skin.

More to explore
Hormone • Skin

Ancient cities were often built around a
fortress on top of a hill. When a city
spread to the area below, the high part
came to be called the acropolis, which
means “city at the top” in Greek. The
best-known acropolis is in Athens,

Bumps called pimples are the main sign of

hormones. Some of those hormones
speed up the skin’s production of oil.
The extra oil clumps together with dead
skin cells to clog pores, or tiny openings
in the skin. As the oil gland under a
clogged pore makes more oil, the pore
swells up to form a pimple.
There is very little a person can do to
prevent acne. However, there are treatments for clearing up acne and ways of
preventing acne from getting worse.

The buildings of the Athens Acropolis
were made mostly of white marble. Parts
of some of the buildings, including a
temple called the Erechtheum, are still
standing today. The Erechtheum had a
porch with marble columns in the shape
of female figures.
The most famous surviving building is
the Parthenon. The Parthenon was built
almost 2,500 years ago and was dedicated to the goddess Athena. Athens was
later ruled by Christians who made the

Washing the skin twice a day with a
mild soap can be helpful. This removes
some oil and dead skin cells that help to
clog skin pores.
In some cases a doctor may prescribe
medicine to treat infections caused by
acne. Doctors may also suggest medi-

The ruins of the Parthenon stand out on the
Acropolis in Athens, Greece.





Parthenon a church. In the 1400s Turkish forces took control of the Acropolis
and made the Parthenon an Islamic
mosque. In 1687, during a war, some
gunpowder stored there exploded,
destroying the middle of the building.
In 1801 a British diplomat named Lord
Elgin took many sculptures and carved
panels from the Parthenon and brought
them to England. They were put on
display at the British Museum. The
Greek government, however, asked for
their return to Greece. The sculptures
remained on display while the dispute
continued into the 21st century.

More to explore
Athena • Athens


A woman receives an acupuncture treatment.

Acupuncture is an ancient Chinese form
of healing. It involves piercing the skin
with thin needles to relieve pain. Today

acupuncture is also popular in Europe,
the Americas, and Australia.
Modern doctors accept that acupuncture
can control pain and nausea. Some doctors recommend acupuncture along with
regular medical treatments for such ailments as asthma, high blood pressure,
indigestion, and stress. Doctors in China
have even used acupuncture instead of
drugs to stop pain during surgery.
People who practice acupuncture must
take courses to learn how to do it correctly. In many places only medical doctors may perform acupuncture.
During treatment the patient lies on a
table while the acupuncturist sticks special needles into certain points on the
body. The needles are made of metal and
are about as thick as a human hair. They
normally go less than 0.5 inch (1 centimeter) into the skin. There are hundreds
of possible points where the needles can
be stuck, each with a different effect.
Doctors are not sure how acupuncture
works. Some think that the needles
cause the body to produce pain-killing
chemicals. Others think that the needles
block pain signals from traveling along
the nerves to the brain. Some think that
acupuncture acts like a placebo—a treatment that works only because patients
believe it will.

Adams, Abigail
Abigail Adams was the wife of President
John Adams and the mother of Presi-

Adams, Ansel


family members by letter. Her letters
are full of her opinions on the
important issues of the day. This was
during the time when the American
colonies began to fight for
independence from Great Britain. She
wrote in favor of American
independence. Like her husband, she
also believed that slavery had no place
in a country dedicated to freedom.
Abigail Adams

dent John Quincy Adams. Her reading
and her family life gave her a good
understanding of politics. She strongly
favored American independence and
universal liberty. She was also determined to overcome the limits that were
placed on women at the time.
Abigail Smith was born on November
22, 1744, in Weymouth, Massachusetts.
As a girl she studied the books in her
father’s large library. Women could not
go to college then, but Abigail received a
good education at home.

In 1789 John Adams became the first vice
president of the United States. Eight years
later he became the second president.
Even during those terms Abigail was
often in Massachusetts running the
family farm. In 1800, however, she
moved with the president into the White
House, which was unfinished at the time.
After Adams’ term as president he and
Abigail returned to Quincy and settled
comfortably into retirement. Abigail
died on October 28, 1818.

More to explore
Adams, John • Adams, John Quincy
• American Revolution • White House

In 1759 Abigail met the young lawyer
John Adams. They shared interests in
reading, writing, and politics. They married in 1764 and settled on a farm in
Braintree (now Quincy), Massachusetts.
They had five children. Abigail, John
Quincy, Charles, and Thomas survived
to adulthood.

Adams, Ansel

John Adams’ law practice and political
duties kept him away from home much
of the time. Abigail Adams stayed in
touch with her husband and other

Ansel Adams was born in San Francisco,
California, on February 20, 1902. He
was originally a student of music. Photography was only a hobby for him until

U.S. photographer Ansel Adams is
famous for his striking images of
Western landscapes. He was among the
first people to promote photography as
an art form. Adams also was known for
his love of nature.


rights. She told
her husband
John Adams to
“remember the
ladies” during
the fight
for U.S.


Adams, John


1927. That year he published his first
collection of photographs.

Adams, John

In 1940 Adams helped found the
world’s first museum collection of photographs at the Museum of Modern Art
in New York City. In 1946 he established the first academic department to
teach photography as a profession. He
did that at the California School of Fine
Arts in San Francisco.
Adams was a nature lover throughout
his life. He published many collections
of photographs that he took in the wilderness areas of the United States. They
include My Camera in the National Parks
and Photographs of the Southwest.
In 1980 Adams was awarded the Presidential Medal of Freedom, the highest
nonmilitary honor in the United States.
He died on April 22, 1984, in Carmel,

John Adams was the second president of
the United States.

As a lawyer in the American colonies,
John Adams fought for independence
from Great Britain. He went on to
become the first vice president and the
second president of the new United

Early Life
John Adams was born in Braintree (now
Quincy), Massachusetts, on October 30,
1735. His father was a farmer and a
community leader. After graduating
from Harvard College in 1755, Adams
became a lawyer. In 1764 Adams married Abigail Smith. They had five children. One daughter died in infancy.
Ansel Adams prepares to take a
photograph along the coast of

Revolutionary Era
Adams became a leader in the fight
against British laws in the colonies. Still,

Adams, John


Adams helps
create the
Treaty of Paris,
which ends the

Adams is born
in Braintree
(now Quincy),
October 30,



Adams joins
the Continental

as a lawyer, Adams defended British
soldiers who had killed five colonists in
the Boston Massacre of 1770. This made
him unpopular for a time among the
other colonists. But Adams believed that
everyone’s legal rights should be protected.
In 1774 Massachusetts’ colonists elected
Adams to the Continental Congress.
There he asked George Washington to
serve as commander of the Continental
Army, the military force of the colonies
during the American Revolution. He
also chose Thomas Jefferson to write the
Declaration of Independence.
In 1779 Adams served at the Massachusetts Constitutional Convention. He
wrote the document that became the
state’s constitution of 1780. Adams then
joined Benjamin Franklin in Paris,
France. There he helped to produce the
Treaty of Paris, which ended the American Revolution.

Adams is


becomes vice
president under

Adams dies in

Adams loses
the presidency
to Thomas

Vice Presidency
In 1789 Adams finished second to
George Washington in the presidential
election. Under the system of the time,
Adams became vice president. Voters
reelected the two men in 1792.
Political parties began to form during
Washington’s presidency. Adams and
Alexander Hamilton led the Federalists,
who supported a strong central government. They opposed the DemocraticRepublicans, led by Jefferson, who
wanted the states to have more power.

Adams won a narrow victory over Jefferson in the election of 1796. Adams was
not a popular president. He followed his
own principles instead of others’ opinions. Adams even disagreed with other
Federalists, notably Hamilton.
During Adams’ presidency a dispute
between the United States and France

July 4,



Adams, John Quincy

John Adams
was the first
president who
lived in the
White House.
He moved in
on November
1, 1800.


almost led to war. The French had
expected the United States to support
them in their war with Britain. The
United States refused, and the French
began seizing U.S. ships. Hamilton and
others called for war with France.
Adams, however, thought the United
States was not ready for another war.
Going against his party, he made peace
with France.
Adams faced more criticism for the passage of the Alien and Sedition Acts in
1798. Those harsh laws made it more
difficult for new immigrants to stay in
the country. They also punished critics
of the government.

Defeat and Death
Adams lost to Jefferson in the presidential election of 1800. Adams died within
hours of Jefferson on July 4, 1826, the
50th anniversary of the signing of the
Declaration of Independence.

More to explore
American Revolution • Continental
Congress • Hamilton, Alexander
• Jefferson, Thomas • United States

Adams, John
Son of President John Adams, John
Quincy Adams became the sixth president of the United States in 1825.
Although he was intelligent and dedicated to his country, Adams was not
very popular. His accomplishments as a
diplomat and congressman overshadowed his uneventful presidency.

John Quincy Adams was the
sixth president of the United

Early Life
John Quincy Adams was born on July
11, 1767, in Braintree (now Quincy),
Massachusetts. He grew up during the
American Revolution. His father was a
member of the Continental Congress.
His mother, Abigail Adams, also was a
patriot. Adams studied in Europe and in
Massachusetts at Harvard College. After
graduating in 1787, he studied law and
became a lawyer in Boston.
In 1797 Adams married Louisa Catherine Johnson. The couple had four children, a daughter and three sons. One of
their sons, Charles Francis Adams,
became a member of the House of Representatives and a diplomat.

Early Career
In 1794 President George Washington
made Adams the U.S. minister to The

Adams, John Quincy


President James
Monroe makes
secretary of

Adams is born
in Braintree
(now Quincy),
July 11,



Adams is
elected to the
U.S. Senate.

Netherlands. In 1797 Adams’ father,
now president, made Adams ambassador
to Prussia. In 1802 Adams was elected
to the Massachusetts Senate. In 1803 he
was elected to the U.S. Senate. After five
years he resigned from the Senate to
practice law.
In 1809 President James Madison
appointed Adams minister to Russia. In
1815 Adams became minister to Great
Britain. He returned to the United
States in 1817 and became secretary of
state under President James Monroe. In
that role Adams helped persuade Spain
to give control of Florida to the United
States. He also helped create the Monroe
Doctrine, a warning to European countries not to extend their power in the
Western Hemisphere.

Adams loses
the presidential
election to

Adams is
elected the
sixth president
of the United


Adams dies in

enters the
U.S. House of

lowed by Adams. No one had a majority
of the votes, however, so the House of
Representatives had to pick the winner.
The House chose Adams. He took office
in 1825.
The country prospered during Adams’
presidency, but he was not a successful
leader. He wanted to create a national
university and expand the country’s
roads. However, Jackson’s supporters in
Congress blocked most of Adams’ bills.
In the election of 1828 Adams lost to

Later Career and Death

Adams retired in 1829, but his retirement was brief. In 1830 Massachusetts
elected him to the House of Representatives. In Congress Adams argued against
the expansion of slavery. He also helped
start the Smithsonian Institution, which
today runs several museums in WashingIn 1824 Adams was one of four candidates for the presidency. Andrew Jackson ton, D.C. Adams suffered a stroke in
1848 while speaking in the House. He
received the most electoral votes, fol-

February 23,



Adams, Samuel

died in the Capitol two days later, on
February 23, 1848.

More to explore
Adams, John • Jackson, Andrew
• United States

Adams, Samuel
A strong attachment to the cause of
independence made Samuel Adams a
leader of the American Revolution. As a
politician and as a writer he stirred the
colonists against British rule.
Samuel Adams was born in Boston,
Massachusetts, on September 27, 1722.
His second cousin was John Adams, the
second president of the United States.
Sam graduated from Harvard College in
1740 and soon entered local politics.


respondence.” This was a group that
coordinated anti-British activity.
Adams was among the first to call for
complete independence for the American colonies. As a member of both Continental Congresses, he said that
Americans must be ready to fight. In
1776 he signed the Declaration of Independence. In 1794 Adams was elected
governor of Massachusetts. He died on
October 2, 1803.

More to explore
Adams, John • American Revolution
• Continental Congress • Declaration of


Plants and animals have special characteristics, or traits, that help them survive
In the 1760s Adams led protests against in their surroundings. They develop
the British, who ruled the colonies at the these traits through a process called
time. He served in the Massachusetts
legislature from 1765 to 1774. In 1772
he helped organize a “committee of cor- Many animals have traits that help them
hide from other animals that want to
attack them. Some insects look like a
leaf or a twig. Deer are colored shades of
brown, like the trees in the forests where
they live. In both cases, these animals
become almost invisible to their predators, or attackers, because they blend in
with their surroundings.

Samuel Adams

Other animals have features that help
them deal with some part of their surroundings. Frogs, alligators, and hippopotamuses all spend a great deal of time
in the water. They all have their eyes and
nostrils near the top of the head. This

Addams, Jane


Many animals have developed features to help them survive in their habitat. Hippopotamuses’ eyes and nostrils are on the top of the snout. This allows them to spend a lot of time
almost completely underwater. Ducks have webbed feet to help them swim. Walruses have
thick skin to protect against the cold.

means that the animal may remain
almost completely underwater and yet
be able to see and breathe. Water birds
have webbed feet to help them paddle in
the water. Cactus plants, which live in
dry places, can store a lot of water. A
cactus has thick skin and a waxy surface.
This keeps the plant from losing water
through evaporation.
Organisms with helpful traits tend to
thrive, to reproduce, and to pass those
traits on to their own offspring. Similar
organisms that do not have these traits
do not survive as well and do not have as
much chance to reproduce. Therefore
the helpful traits are passed on and eventually become permanent. This process
is called natural selection. It is part of
the process of evolution.

More to explore
Animal • Evolution • Plant

Addams, Jane

Jane Addams

The social worker Jane Addams devoted
her life to helping the poor and promoting world peace. She founded Hull
House to serve needy immigrants in
Chicago, Illinois. It was one of the first
agencies of its kind in North America.
Jane Addams was born on September 6,
1860, in Cedarville, Illinois. She gradu-



Addis Ababa


ated from college in 1882 and then went
to Europe. In a poor section of London,
England, she visited Toynbee Hall. University graduates lived there and worked
to improve life in the neighborhood. It
was known as the world’s first social
settlement. Addams took this idea back
to the United States.
In 1889 Addams and a classmate, Ellen
Gates Starr, rented a big house in Chicago. They moved in and opened the
house to immigrants who were trying to
succeed in their new country. Addams
and Starr called their social settlement
Hull House after its builder, Charles
Hull. Hull House workers started a day
care center, a kindergarten, a gymnasium, and an employment agency. They
taught many kinds of classes and even
set up a theater. All these programs
eventually filled 13 buildings.
Addams became involved in many social
causes. She worked to pass laws against
child labor, to protect workers’ rights,
and to win women the right to vote.
Addams believed that countries should
settle their disagreements peacefully. She
spoke out against World War I even
though her opinion made her less popular. In 1931 she won a share of the
Nobel peace prize.

Addis Ababa
(2006 estimate)

Addis Ababa is the capital and largest
city of the East African country of
Ethiopia. It is situated on a plateau high
in the central mountains of Ethiopia.
Ethiopia’s government ministries and
houses of parliament are located in
Addis Ababa. The city also contains the
headquarters of the African Union.
Most of Ethiopia’s trade passes through
Addis Ababa. In the western part of the
city is the Mercato. It is one of the largest
open-air markets in Africa. Goods manufactured in the city include textiles, food,
beverages, plastics, and wood products.
Addis Ababa became the capital of
Ethiopia in the late 1800s. Before that

Addams lived at Hull House until her
death on May 21, 1935. The original
Hull mansion has been preserved as a
museum that honors her.

More to explore

Worshippers gather at an Ethiopian Orthodox church in Addis Ababa.



the capital was Entoto, a cold, windswept town just to the north. In 1887
the empress Taitu persuaded her husband, Emperor Menelik II, to move the
capital to its present site.
From 1935 to 1941 Italian forces occupied Addis Ababa as well as the rest of
Ethiopia. The Italians paved roads and
constructed European-style buildings.
Development of the city was slow from
1941 until 1960. Beginning in the
1960s, however, Addis Ababa grew rapidly in population.

More to explore

Adena Culture
The ancient Native Americans of the
Adena culture lived in a large area centered in what is now southern Ohio.
The Adena people thrived from about
500 BC to AD 100. They are known
mostly for the earthen mounds they
built. The term Adena comes from the
name of a place where archaeologists
found Adena mounds in the early
The Adena settled in hundreds of small
villages along the Ohio River. They lived
in cone-shaped houses and fed themselves by hunting, fishing, and gathering
fruits and wild plants. They made tools
from wood, bone, and copper. They also
wove cloth and molded simple pots
from clay.
The Adena constructed hundreds of
earthen mounds in the area that now

The largest burial mound of the Adena culture can be seen in what is now northern
West Virginia. It was built more than 2,000
years ago.

makes up Ohio, Indiana, Kentucky,
West Virginia, and Pennsylvania. Many
of the mounds were burial sites. The
Adena built many mounds in simple
shapes such as circles and rectangles.
They shaped other mounds like animals.
The most famous is the Great Serpent
Mound near Peebles, Ohio. This mound
looks like a giant snake and is nearly
1,300 feet (400 meters) long.
No one knows for sure what happened
to the Adena people after about AD 100.
Some scientists think that they joined
the Hopewell people, who developed a
similar culture in the territory where the
Adena had lived.

More to explore
Hopewell Culture • Native Americans

Adobe is a type of clay that is used to
make bricks. People in many dry parts





terranean Sea, in North Africa, and in
southern Spain made adobe bricks.
American Indians in the driest parts of
North and South America also built
with adobe. For example, the Pueblo
Indians built many adobe houses in
what is now the southwestern part of the
United States.

More to explore
Clay • Pueblo Indians
The buildings of Taos Pueblo in New
Mexico are made of adobe. Some have
been lived in for more than 1,000 years.


of the world use adobe bricks to build
buildings. This is partly because there
are few trees in these regions to supply
wood for building.

Adolescence is the time in a young person’s life between childhood and adulthood. Adolescence starts when a person
is about 12 years old and ends at about
the age of 19. A person in this age group
is called an adolescent, or a teenager.

People make adobe bricks by wetting
clay and then adding straw or another
type of fiber. They mix the material and
pour it into molds. The molds have four
sides and are open at the top. People
then lay the bricks out in the sun to dry,
which can take several weeks. When
they are dry, the adobe bricks are ready
to use.

Adolescence is a time of great change.
Adolescents experience changes in their
bodies. They also experience changes in
their emotions, or feelings, as well as
their thoughts and beliefs. They often
see the world differently, and they act
differently than they did when they were

Adobe buildings usually start with a base
of stone or concrete. Workers stack the
adobe bricks on this base. They stick the
bricks together with a mudlike material
called mortar. Adobe buildings are very
strong and last for hundreds of years.
Adobe buildings also stay warm in winter and cool in summer.
People have used adobe for thousands of
years. Ancient peoples east of the Medi-

Relationships with their friends are very
important to most adolescents.

Adriatic Sea


Changes in the Body
During adolescence, the reproductive
system develops. The reproductive
organs are the parts of the body that
allow men and women to make babies.
Girls’ and boys’ bodies change in different ways. Boys grow facial hair, and their
voices deepen. They also develop stronger muscles. Girls grow breasts and wider
hips, and they start having menstrual
periods. This means that they are able to
become pregnant.

Emotional Changes
Adolescence is an exciting time. It is also
a time that can be very confusing. Boys
and girls become much more interested
in each other. At the same time they
may worry about their appearance, and
they are sometimes easily embarrassed.
During adolescence, most boys and girls
care a lot about what other adolescents
think of them. They may also be very
concerned with how they fit into their
world. Often adolescents choose to
spend time with their friends rather than
with their families.

Growing Independence
As adolescents grow emotionally, they
begin to take on new responsibilities and
gain new freedoms. They act and think
more independently. They also start to
find a balance between family and
friends. These changes mean that adolescents are on their way to becoming

Adriatic Sea

The Adriatic Sea separates Italy from the
Balkan Peninsula of eastern Europe. It
was probably named after the port town
of Adria, which prospered during
ancient Roman times.
The Adriatic is about 500 miles (800
kilometers) long and has an average
width of 100 miles (160 kilometers). Its
maximum depth is 4,100 feet (1,250
meters). The sea has a high salt content.
The climate is Mediterranean. This
means that it has clear, warm, and dry
summers and mild, humid winters.
The Adriatic extends from the Gulf of
Venice, in the north, southeastward to
the Strait of Otranto, which leads to the
Ionian Sea near Albania. Its western, or
Italian, coast is low and straight. The
eastern coast is rocky and mountainous.
The countries of Slovenia, Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, and Montenegro
border the sea to the east.

More to explore
Child Development • Reproductive


The Adriatic is an important part of
tourism in the region. Many holiday

Bosnia and
seacoast on
the Adriatic is
only 12 miles
(20 kilometers)




resorts are located on its shores. The
fishing catch on the Adriatic includes
lobsters, sardines, and tuna.

the Internet. Ads are also posted as signs
in all kinds of public places.

The Media and Advertising

Whenever people give information to
the public about an event, a product, or
a service, they are using advertising. A
piece of advertising is called an advertisement, or ad.
The goal of most advertising is to make
the public want to buy whatever is being
advertised. People also use advertising to
make the public form opinions about
things. For example, an ad could try to
make the public believe that a company
treats its workers well. Another ad could
try to make voters choose a certain candidate for president.
Ads appear almost everywhere. They are
found in newspapers and magazines.
They appear on television, radio, and

When advertisers want many people to
see or hear their ads, they pay the media
to have the ads published or broadcast.
Newspapers and magazines publish, or
print, ads between their articles. Television and radio networks broadcast, or
play, ads during their programs. (Television and radio ads are also called commercials.) Web sites, buses, movie
theaters, and many other places also
display ads in exchange for money.

Control of Advertising
Advertisers are regulated, or controlled,
in several ways. Governments usually
pass laws to make sure that ads are
truthful and do not offend consumers.
Also, the media usually set their own
rules that advertisers must follow.

History of Advertising
Signs were the first form of advertising.
Even thousands of years ago people created hand-lettered signs to advertise
their goods and services. The invention
of the printing press in the 1400s
expanded this type of advertising. Merchants could print dozens of the same
posters and fliers to advertise what they
were selling. In the 1600s and 1700s
newspapers appeared in Europe, the
Americas, and Japan. Advertising then
became even more widespread.

Bright advertisements compete for attention
in New York City.

Today advertising is a huge part of business around the world. A major corpora-

Aegean civilization


tion may spend hundreds of millions of
dollars a year just on advertising.

More to explore
Magazine • Newspaper • Radio
• Television

The earliest European civilization arose
sometime after 3000 BC, in the region of
the Aegean Sea. It took place on the
islands and the mainland of what is now
the country of Greece. This civilization
went through several stages. It began on
the island of Crete. That early part is now
called the Minoan civilization. On the
mainland of Greece it developed later.
That is now called Mycenaean

The Minoan civilization lasted from
about 2500 BC to about 1400 BC. The
Minoans are named for their legendary

king Minos. Their capital city was Knossos. The palace at Knossos was enormous, covering 5.5 acres (2.2 hectares)
of ground. Large towns spread around
other Minoan palaces. Houses were
often two stories high. They were built
with stones, timber, and mud bricks.
The Minoans painted their pottery and
walls with images of plants, flowers,
animals, and goddesses. They worshipped a mother goddess.
The wealth of the Minoans was based
on seafaring and trading, especially trade
with the Middle East and Egypt. Pottery
made on Crete has been found in Egypt,
and ancient Egyptian pottery has been
found on Crete. A powerful navy protected Knossos.

The Mycenaean civilization developed
in the 1500s BC, when Greek-speaking
people settled down on the Greek mainland. The Mycenaeans conquered the
Minoans in about 1400 BC. Their civilization is named after Mycenae, its most
important city.
A king headed the society. Kings built
fortresses with strong walls. This was
because the Mycenaeans fought many
wars, including—according to legend—
the Trojan War. There were also landowners, farmers, slaves, and priests. Like
the Minoans, the Mycenaeans decorated
their walls with paintings. They were
skilled jewelers and goldsmiths.

The throne room of the palace in Knossos
still holds the throne of the ancient Minoan

Mycenaean trade extended to Sicily,
Egypt, Palestine, Troy, Cyprus, and


Ancient Greek
mythology tells
of the Minotaur, a fierce
monster of the
Minoan kingdom. The
Minotaur had
the body of a
man and the
head of a bull.


Aegean Sea


Macedonia. The Mycenaeans imported
food, cloth, and copper. They probably
exported woolen goods, olive oil, timber,
and silver.
The Mycenaeans adopted the Minoan
system of writing on clay tablets. Unlike
the Minoan language, however, the
Mycenaean language has been translated.
It is the oldest known form of Greek.
Toward the end of the 1200s BC, the
Mycenaean civilization fell apart. Many
people moved away to other lands.
Scholars think that the decline may have
been due to drought, bad harvests, lack
of food, disease, or anger about the high
taxes the people had to pay.
In about 1100 BC Greece was taken over
by tribes from the north. These peoples
were the ancestors of the modern
Greeks. It is with them that the history
of ancient Greece began.

More to explore
Aegean Sea • Greece • Greece, Ancient

Aegean Sea

to the shores of Asia. The islands are
actually the mountain peaks of an
underwater landmass called Aegeis.
The Aegean contains few nutrients so
very little plant life grows there. Its
warm waters, however, encourage fish to
enter it from the Black Sea to breed.
The chief products of the islands are
wheat, wine, oil, figs, raisins, honey,
vegetables, marble, and minerals. Fishing and tourism are also important. Visitors come to see the villages of
whitewashed houses as well as the ruins
of ancient civilizations.

An arm of the Mediterranean Sea, the
Aegean Sea lies between the countries of
Greece and Turkey. The region was the
site of two great ancient civilizations,
those of Crete and Greece.
The Aegean Sea is about 380 miles (610
kilometers) long and 185 miles (300
kilometers) wide. In the northeast it
connects to the Black Sea through a
series of narrow straits. The sea has hundreds of islands stretching from Greece

The clear blue waters of the Aegean Sea
lap at the shores of a beach in Greece.



Scientists believe that people began to
explore the Aegean about 15,000 years
ago. By the 1st century BC the Roman
Empire ruled over the area of the Aegean
and the Mediterranean. The region later
came under the control of the Byzantine
Empire, the Ottoman Empire, and
finally the independent country of

More to explore
Aegean Civilization • Greece

Hundreds of stories called fables are
credited to a person named Aesop.
Ancient scholars claimed that Aesop
lived in the kingdom of Thrace in the
500s BC. It is now known that many of
the stories are even older and that Aesop
probably never existed. But the fables
that are credited to him are still used to
teach children.
The fables of Aesop were probably part
of an oral history—stories that were told
aloud. About 2,000 years ago the
Roman writer Phaedrus wrote down
some of the fables. Later the stories were
translated into other languages. An early
English-language version of the stories
was published in 1692. The fables familiar to readers today were translated into
English during the 1800s. Most of the
fables are about animals with human
characteristics. Most end with a moral,
or a statement of the lesson that the
fable teaches.

More to explore
Fable • Folktale

In Aesop’s fable of “The Hare and the Tortoise,” a speedy hare teases a tortoise
about his slow pace. The tortoise challenges
the hare to a race. The hare is so sure that
he will win that he takes a nap. When he
wakes up, the tortoise has already won. The
moral is “Slow but steady wins the race.”





The country of Afghanistan lies at the
heart of central Asia. The capital is

Afghanistan borders Iran, Pakistan,
Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, and Tajikistan. The Amu Darya river forms part of
the northern border. A narrow piece of
land called the Vakhan, or Wakhan Corridor, connects Afghanistan with China.
Afghanistan is a mountainous country.
The main range is the Hindu Kush, in
the northeast. North of the central
mountains are fertile plains. Deserts,
including the sandy Rigestan, lie in the
southwest. Afghanistan generally has a
dry climate with cold winters and hot

Plants and Animals
Southern Afghanistan has little vegetation. Cedar, oak, walnut, alder, and ash

trees grow in the north. The mountains
have forests of pine and fir.
Wolves, foxes, hyenas, jackals, bears, and
wild goats roam the mountains.
Gazelles, wild dogs, and wild cats are
widespread. The country’s birds include
vultures and eagles.

The people of Afghanistan, known as
Afghans, are a mixture of many different
groups. The Pashtuns make up about
half of the population. Tajiks make up
about a fifth of the population. Other
ethnic groups include the Hazara,
Uzbeks, Chahar Aimaks, and Turkmen.
Pashto, the language of the Pashtuns,
and Dari (Persian) are the two official
languages, but others are spoken. Almost
all Afghans are Muslims.
Kabul is the largest city, but most
Afghans live in rural areas. Farmers live
in villages along the rivers. Nomads live
in tents and move from place to place.
Few people live in the mountains or the

Afghanistan is one of the poorest countries in the world. Most people grow
crops and raise animals for their own
use. The main food crops are wheat,
rice, grapes, barley, and corn. Sheep,
goats, and cattle are the main livestock.
Some farmers grow opium poppies,
which are used to make illegal drugs.




1800s. After winning independence
from Britain in 1919, Afghanistan continued as a monarchy. In 1973 Afghans
overthrew the king. The country’s new
leaders made Afghanistan a republic, led
by a prime minister.

Soviet Invasion
In 1978 Communists seized control of
Afghanistan’s government. The Soviet
Union invaded in December 1979. For
nearly a decade Islamic forces known as
mujahideen fought the Soviets. Millions
of Afghans left the country for Pakistan
and Iran. The Soviet Army left in 1989.
The blue-tiled mosque in Mazar-e Sharif,
Afghanistan, is important to all Muslims. It
marks the tomb of !Ali, the son-in-law of the
prophet Muhammad.

The Taliban

Various Afghan groups then fought for
control. By the late 1990s a group called
the Taliban had gained control over
most of Afghanistan. The Taliban ruled
Manufacturers make processed foods,
according to a strict version of Islamic
leather, fur, and textiles. The country has
deposits of natural gas, but warfare has
prevented Afghans from using them.
The Taliban angered other countries by
allowing terrorists to live in Afghanistan.
When the Taliban refused to hand over
Major trade routes crossed what is now
suspected terrorist Osama bin Laden,
Afghanistan thousands of years ago. The
the United States and its allies bombed
Persians and Macedonian king AlexAfghanistan in October 2001. Within
ander the Great ruled the land more
months the Taliban abandoned Kabul.
than 2,300 years ago. In the AD 600s
In 2004 Afghanistan adopted a new
Arab invaders introduced the religion of
constitution and elected a president. But
Islam. In 1219 Genghis Khan made the
fighting continued between U.S. forces
area part of his Mongol Empire. Beginand the Taliban.
ning in the 1300s Turkic peoples, the
Mughal Empire, and the Persians ruled More to explore
Alexander the Great • bin Laden, Osama
parts of the land.
• Communism • Islam • Kabul
Ahmad Shah Durrani, a Pashtun leader, • Mongol Empire • Mughal Empire
• Persia • Union of Soviet Socialist
unified Afghanistan under his rule in
1747. Great Britain invaded in the

Facts About

(2008 estimate)
249,347 sq mi
(645,807 sq km)
Form of
Islamic republic
Major cities
Kabul, Kandahar
Herat, Mazar-e




Africa is the world’s second largest continent. More than 50 countries make up
the continent. More than one eighth of
the world’s population lives there.

Land and Climate
Africa’s landscape is varied. The northern and western parts of the continent
are generally lower and more level than
the eastern and southern areas. Africa is
the oldest continent. Therefore most of
its mountains are not as high as those on
other continents. They have been worn
down over millions of years by wind and
Africa’s most striking feature is a series
of great rifts, or troughs, in the east
known as the Rift Valley system. These
rifts span two continents, from western

Asia through eastern Africa. In Africa
they are deep, long, narrow valleys.
The world’s longest river, the Nile, flows
through northern Africa. The continent’s other long rivers include the
Congo in central Africa, the Niger in the
west, and the Zambezi in the south.
Eastern Africa has a chain of lakes
known as the great lakes.
The continent is crossed midway by the
equator. This means that most of
Africa—the middle portion—lies within
the tropics, an area where it is hot yearround. In the lowlands near the equator,
rain falls throughout the year. To the
north and south of this rainy area are
large regions that have a rainy season
followed by a dry season. It is very hot

A pair of giraffes is at home near Mount Kilimanjaro in Tanzania.







and dry year-round in Africa’s major
deserts—the Sahara in the north and the
Kalahari and the Namib in the south.

of wild sheep and goat, the African red
deer, and the jerboa (a small leaping
animal like a gerbil). Fish, birds, and
reptiles also are abundant.

Plants and Animals
The vegetation growing in each region
depends on the rainfall it receives. Near
the equator, where it rains year-round,
there are dense rain forests. These forests
contain thousands of different types of
trees and other plants. Between the rain
forests and the great deserts to the north
and south are the savannas. These are
open grasslands scattered with trees such
as acacias and baobabs. Few plants grow
in the deserts.
A serious problem in the savanna is that
the vegetation is being used up, leaving
the land bare. As the population
increases, more and more of the trees are
being used for fuel and for building supplies. Some scientists are concerned that
removing the vegetation may cause the
savanna to become more desertlike.
Africa has many different kinds of animals, though their numbers were greatly
reduced in the 1900s. This loss occurred
because of overhunting and because
large areas of their natural habitats were
taken over for farming. Today many
species are threatened with extinction.
Several countries have set aside land to
help protect wild animals. These wildlife
preserves are home to such animals as
elephants, giraffes, zebras, hippopotamuses, antelopes, lions, jackals, and
hyenas. The rain forests support monkeys, bats, flying squirrels, gorillas, leopards, and mongooses. The native
animals of northern Africa include types

Africa has the most physically varied
population in the world. Most of the
population consists of black peoples
belonging to almost 3,000 different ethnic groups. In the north there are also
large numbers of Arabs. Mainly in the
south there are some descendants of
Europeans who established colonies in
Africa hundreds of years ago.
The number of languages spoken in
Africa probably exceeds 1,000, though
some are spoken by only a small number
of people. Arabic is the major language
of northern Africa. Most Africans who
live south of the equator speak one of
the many Bantu languages. In general,
Islam is the religion of northern Africa

South African boys pose in front
of a painting in Cape Town,
South Africa.



and Christianity of southern Africa.
Traditional religions are also practiced.
Many African countries are comparatively poor. In all African countries the
government provides public education.
But most governments cannot afford to
provide education for everyone. Millions
of Africans remain unable to read or
write. Much of the money for health
care comes from other countries. Infectious diseases, such as malaria, continue
to be a serious problem in Africa, and
about 70 percent of all AIDS cases are in

Most of Africa is underdeveloped. But
the continent has some of the world’s
largest shares of minerals, including oil,
natural gas, and coal; metals such as
gold; and gems such as diamonds.
Farming is a very important part of the
African economy. The chief food crops
vary by region. They include yams in the
tropical forests of the west; corn, millet,
and rice in the savannas; and corn in the
south. The tropical grasslands are also
suitable for cattle farming. Most African
countries do not produce enough food
to feed all their people. Therefore they
must import food.
In many parts of Africa certain crops are
produced for sale to other countries.
Africa is the world’s largest supplier of
cocoa beans, which are used in making
chocolate. Africa also exports much cotton, sisal (a fiber), tea, coffee, palm oil,
yams, and peanuts, as well as wood from
the forests.

Facts About

11,678,801 sq mi (30,247,722 sq km)
(2008 estimate) 955,761,100
Largest Country by Area
Sudan: 966,757 sq mi (2,503,890 sq km)
Smallest Country by Area
Seychelles: 176 sq mi (455 sq km)
Largest Country by Population
Nigeria: (2008 estimate) 146,255,000
Smallest Country by Population
Seychelles: (2008 estimate) 85,500
Largest Cities
Cairo, Egypt; Lagos, Nigeria; Johannesburg,
South Africa; Kinshasa, Congo; Khartoum,
Longest River
Nile River: 4,132 mi (6,650 km)
Largest Lake
Lake Victoria: 26,828 sq mi (69,785 sq km)

Although Africa still earns most of its
money by exporting raw materials and
food, many of its countries are developing industries. Some industries process
raw materials produced in local farms
and forests. Others manufacture goods
for use in Africa. South Africa is the
most industrialized African country.

Africa is thought to be the place where
humans first developed, more than 1
million years ago. The African continent
had many kingdoms and empires during
its early history. One of the world’s earliest civilizations, ancient Egypt, devel-





French had also set up towns and trading centers. They traded slaves from
Africa to the Americas from the 1500s
to the early 1800s. The Europeans did
not actually take control of the African
territories they entered during this
period, however.
Starting in the late 1800s Britain,
France, Belgium, Portugal, and Germany ruled most of Africa as colonies.
Ruins of a casbah, or fort, stand in Morocco
The Europeans took raw materials such
in North Africa.
as minerals and timber from their colonies and shipped them back to Europe.
oped in the lower Nile River valley
The African people had no say in how
nearly 5,000 years ago.
they were ruled. They were also often
forced off the best land so that the EuroThe region called Nubia was south of
peans could take it. Many African
Egypt. The powerful Nubian kingdom
people resisted European control
called Kush ruled Egypt for a while in
throughout the colonial period.
the 700s and 600s BC. In the AD 300s
the kingdom of Aksum conquered Kush
In the 1900s the colonies were finally
from the south.
granted independence. Many African
countries faced great unrest after gaining
The African people have a long history
independence. Ethnic violence led to
of contact with other powers. In about
many deaths, and in many cases civil
the 700s BC the Phoenicians established
war broke out as individuals and groups
the city of Carthage in what is now
struggled to establish control. The poor
Tunisia. In the 100s BC the Roman
economies of the countries added to the
Empire took control of part of North
problems. In 2002 African countries
Africa. Arabs from the Middle East
formed an organization called the Afrispread into Africa in the AD 600s. Great
can Union to try to solve these probtrading states, including the Ghana,
lems. International agencies such as the
Mali, and Songhai empires, flourished in
United Nations helped, too.
western Africa. In eastern and central
Africa, powerful city-states such as
More to explore
African Union • Aksum • Colony
Mogadishu and Mombasa traded with
• Continent • Egypt, Ancient • Ghana
Empire • Human Origins • Kush • Mali
Empire • Nile River • Nubia • Rain
The first Europeans to arrive in Africa
Forest • Sahara • Slavery • Songhai
were the Portuguese, in the late 1400s.
Soon the British, the Dutch, and the

African Americans


African Americans are people in the
United States who have ancestors from
Africa. Many African Americans have
non-African ancestors as well. African
Americans are also known as black

Most African Americans have ancestors
who were slaves. Slaves were people
taken from their African homelands and
shipped to the Americas. There, white
people forced them to work without pay
and in harsh conditions. English settlers
brought the first African slaves to the
colony of Virginia in the early 1600s. By
1790 black people made up nearly one
fifth of the population of the United
States. Most slaves lived and worked on
plantations, or large farms, in the South.
Many people called abolitionists worked
to end slavery. These included black
people as well as white people. Harriet
Tubman, a black abolitionist, organized
the Underground Railroad, which was a
way for slaves to escape to the North.

The American Civil War
The American Civil War broke out in
1861. This was a war between the
Northern and Southern states, partly
over the issue of slavery. In 1863 President Abraham Lincoln issued the Emancipation Proclamation. This document
freed the slaves in the Southern states.


The North won the Civil War in 1865.
That year the 13th Amendment to the
U.S. Constitution ended slavery
throughout the United States. In 1868
the 14th Amendment gave African
Americans U.S. citizenship. In 1870 the
15th Amendment guaranteed them the
right to vote.

The period following the war was
known as Reconstruction. African
Americans were finally free, but most of
them lived in terrible poverty. In the
South many worked as sharecroppers.
This meant that they farmed a piece of
land owned by someone else. Their pay
was a share of the crops they produced.
In addition, African Americans continued to suffer from discrimination (unfair
treatment) and violence. Schools and
other public places were often segregated. This meant that blacks and whites
could not mix in those places. Violent
groups like the Ku Klux Klan kept most
blacks from voting in the South. These
groups also hurt or killed many blacks.

First Civil Rights Efforts
In the late 1800s a former slave named
Booker T. Washington became a powerful voice for African Americans. He
believed in training African Americans
to do certain jobs so that they could find
Other African American leaders disagreed with Washington. W.E.B. Du
Bois thought that the government
should guarantee to blacks the same
rights that whites had. These

February is
Black History
Month in the
United States.
In that month
schools and
other organizations help
everyone learn
about the African American


African Americans


rights—such as the right to vote or the
right to go to a public school—are called
civil rights. Du Bois and others formed
the National Association for the
Advancement of Colored People
(NAACP) to help African Americans to
gain full civil rights.

Great Migration
During World War I (1914–18) large
numbers of African Americans began to
leave the South. They moved to cities in
the North and West. There they hoped
to find jobs and to escape discrimination. However, many were forced to live
in poor, segregated areas.
This movement from the South, called
the Great Migration, continued through
the 1960s. By 1970 about 6 million
African Americans had left the South.

Civil Rights Movement
By the 1950s the NAACP had begun to
use the court system to fight for civil
rights for African Americans. One major
success came in 1954. In that year the
U.S. Supreme Court outlawed segregation in public schools.

In May 1954 the U.S. Supreme
Court ruled that segregation in
schools was illegal. Lawyers
George Hayes (left), Thurgood
Marshall (center), and James M.
Nabrit (right) join hands outside
the U.S. Supreme Court to celebrate the decision.

Black Power Movement
Despite these successes, some African
Americans grew impatient with the
slow pace of change. They began a

These efforts soon turned into an organized fight for equal rights. This was
called the civil rights movement. A Baptist minister named Martin Luther King,
Jr., became the leader of the movement.
In 1963 he led a major protest called the
March on Washington.
In 1964 the U.S. Congress passed the
Civil Rights Act. This law banned discrimination based on race in schools,
jobs, and many other areas.

African Americans at the 1968
Olympics show their support of
the black power movement with
a raised-fist salute.

African National Congress


more extreme movement called the
black power movement. Malcolm X
and a group called the Black Panthers
were among the movement’s leaders.
They believed that blacks should use
violence, if necessary, to get power and
During the 1960s violent riots did break
out in black neighborhoods in many
cities. The African Americans who
rioted were angry about violent treatment by police, a lack of jobs, and poor

Political Progress
After the 1960s the civil rights movement broke into many separate groups.
Still, African American leaders continued their work to end discrimination.
In addition, many African Americans
gained positions of power. In 1967
Thurgood Marshall became the first
African American justice of the U.S.
Supreme Court. In 2001 Colin Powell
became the first black U.S. secretary of
state, and in 2008 Barack Obama
became the first African American to be
elected president of the United States.

African Americans Today
In 2000 there were about 36 million
Americans with African roots. They
made up about 13 percent of the total
U.S. population. One quarter of African
Americans lived in poverty, and discrimination against African Americans
remains a problem today. Nevertheless,
African Americans have made great

Author Toni Morrison writes about the experiences of African Americans. She won the
Nobel prize for literature in 1993.

gains since the end of slavery more than
140 years ago.

More to explore
Civil Rights Movement • King, Martin
Luther, Jr. • Malcolm X • Marshall,
Thurgood • National Association for the
Advancement of Colored People
• Slavery • Tubman, Harriet
• Washington, Booker T.

African National
A political party in South Africa, the
African National Congress (ANC) supported the rights of black and mixedrace people through the apartheid era.
Nelson Mandela, the first black president of South Africa, belonged to the
In the early 1900s whites ruled South
Africa. Blacks made up most of the



African Union


lature, and Mandela became South Africa’s first black president.

More to explore
Apartheid • Mandela, Nelson • South

African Union

Thabo Mbeki stands in front of a
board showing election results.
Mbeki followed Nelson Mandela
as leader of the ANC.

country’s population but did not have
equal rights. In 1912 black Africans who
wanted equality formed the party that
became the ANC.
In 1950 the South African government
introduced apartheid. This system kept
whites and nonwhites apart and denied
nonwhites almost all their legal rights.
The ANC protested. In 1960 the party
was banned, but its members continued
to protest, sometimes violently. The
government arrested ANC leaders,
including Mandela. In 1964 Mandela
was sent to prison.
During the 1970s and 1980s the ANC
gained support among South Africa’s
people. In 1990 the government lifted
the ban on the party and freed Mandela.
In 1994 an election open to all races was
held. The ANC won control of the legis-

People carry pictures of African
leaders at a ceremony celebrating the first meeting of the African Union.

In 2002, 53 African countries joined
together to form the African Union
(AU). The leaders of these countries felt
that the union would benefit all the
countries’ people, governments, and
businesses. The headquarters of the AU
is in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.
The AU took the place of the Organization of African Unity (OAU). The OAU
had been formed in 1963. Around that
time Africa was undergoing great
changes. Colonies that had been under
the control of European powers were



becoming independent countries. The
new countries faced many challenges.
The countries set up the OAU so that
they could help each other.
African leaders formed the AU to
improve what the OAU had been doing.
One of the AU’s goals is to promote
unity, or togetherness, between African
countries. Other goals are to defend the
member countries and to encourage economic development. The AU also works
for peace and stability, the end of hunger,
and the protection of human rights.
People of all ages can enjoy spending time
The leaders of the AU hope to bring all
of Africa under a single, central government someday. The AU already has its
own parliament, or lawmaking body.
The leaders are also planning a court
system for all of Africa. In addition, they
want the countries of the AU to use a
single form of money.

More to explore
Addis Ababa • Africa

All living things, from their first
moment of existence, begin the process
of aging, or growing older. As children
move toward adulthood, they become
taller, stronger, and more independent.
At some point in adulthood, however, a
slow decline begins. The onset of aging
happens at different times for different
people. Most people start to feel some
effects of aging in their 40s or 50s.


muscles begin to shrink and their bones
become more fragile. They often lose
some of their height or part of their
vision or hearing. They think more
slowly, and their short-term memory
may suffer. Scientists are not exactly sure
what causes the effects of aging. The
cells of the body might have a built-in
time limit. That limit would determine
how long the cells can remain healthy
and able to create new cells.
Several factors affect how long people
live. One factor is heredity. Long lives
seem to run in families. Another factor
is lifestyle. Physically fit people who do
not smoke will probably age more slowly
and live longer than others. Poverty also
affects how long people live. People who
cannot afford to eat well and go to a
doctor when they are sick may die
before they become old.

As people age, their hair often thins and Animals age at different rates and live
turns gray, and their skin wrinkles. Their for different lengths of time. These aging





rates depend on the type of animal. Rats
may be said to be old at about 2 years,
dogs at about 10 years, and elephants at
about 40 years. For humans, people in
their 60s and older are commonly considered to be old.

Agriculture is another word for farming.
It includes both growing and harvesting
crops and raising animals, or livestock.
Agriculture provides the food and many
of the raw materials that humans need
to survive.

Raising Plants and Animals
The products of agriculture that people
eat come from both plants and animals.
Plant foods include fruits, vegetables,
and grains. Meat, dairy (milk) products,
and eggs are some of the most common
animal foods.
Plants and animals also supply such
natural materials as cotton, flax, wool,
and hides. Workers process these materials into thread, cloth, and leather. Then
people use the materials to make such

things as clothing, draperies, shoes, furniture coverings, and many other items.
Growing trees is another important agricultural job. Lumber from tree farms is
used to make buildings, furniture, boats,
and many other things. Christmas trees
often come from tree farms, too.

Location and Weather
People practice agriculture on farms, on
ranches, and in orchards all over the
world. Farmers raise crops and livestock
in every climate and in all kinds of different soil. Some regions receive a lot of
sunlight or rainfall. Others have colder
or drier weather. All places have their
own kinds of agriculture.
Plants and livestock need air, water, and
nourishment to stay alive. If a plant does
not have the kind of soil it needs, it may
die. Similarly, animals also need to have
the right climate and the right food to
survive. Farmers try to raise the kinds of
livestock and plants that will do well in
their region. If they do not have perfect
natural conditions, they try to create the
best conditions possible. For example,
many farmers in dry areas use irrigation,
or artificial watering.


An ox helps a man plant rice in Vietnam.

Humans may have begun taming animals and growing small crops as early as
10,000 years ag